When I was in institution, I never before seemed to have the appropriate coat on. If I walked to school at 7:30 a.m. (0730) in my hefty coat, I would certainly regularly be too warm on the method home at 3:30 p.m. (1530) On the various other hand, it would be also cold in the morning to wear a lighter coat.

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Now, as a trained meteorologist, I recognize the factors why. Do you recognize what time of day it is the coldest? Or when it is the warmest?

Fortunately, it’s sensibly basic to find some data to answer this question. On the jiyuushikan.org web website, you have the right to uncover jiyuushikan.org ONE under “projects” and uncover information for 10 automatic weather stations from Black Hawk County, Iowa. Figure 1 reflects how the temperature varied throughout 5 fair-weather days in April 2002, at Station 4.

Figure 1. Air temperature Tavg (red) and also dew point Tdavg (blue) at a site in Babsence Hawk County, Iowa. Height: 1.5 m over the surchallenge. The data are avereras of 5 days through clear skies in April, 2004.

Looking at the graph, the highest temperature is at roughly 2230 UTC or 4:30 (1630) in the afternoon, regional standard time. The lowest temperature is approximately 7 in the morning local standard time.

Did you suppose the temperature to be warmest at noon, once the sun is greatest in the sky? Many type of civilization do. Why doesn’t that happen?

Let’s begin by considering the energy coming from the Sun. Between sunrise and also suncollection, the radiation from the Sun is continuously including more energy to Earth’s surchallenge. If this power didn’t escape someexactly how, the temperature would certainly be warmest at suncollection.

We know this doesn’t occur. So, let’s take a closer look at what does take place. I’ll use information from southeastern Kansas.


Figure 2. For 2 clear-sky days at a grassland website in southeastern Kansas, ground surchallenge temperature and air temperature (top), downwelling (downward) solar radiation and net radiation (bottom). Notice how the net radiation goes to zero at about 19 hours past midnight and remains negative until about 5 hours past midnight. All times are neighborhood time.

In Figure 2, like Figure 1, the air temperature peaks late in the afternoon; at 16 hours previous midnight (1600 or 4 p.m. local standard time) on May 30, and also 16 hrs previous midnight on May 31 (40 minus 24 hrs = 16 hrs, 1600 or 4 p.m.).

We know the air at 1.5 meters is heated by radiation and convection.

The bottom of Figure 2 mirrors what is happening through the radiation. Tright here is still energy coming in from the Sun at 4 p.m. (1600) and also afterwards (till around 19.5 hours previous midnight). However, the downwelling solar radiation isn’t the whole story.

A few of the solar power is reflected back upward.

Also the air (greenhome gases), clouds, and also Earth’s surface radiate power in the infrared. On the days stood for in Figures 1 and also 2, clouds of course are not a factor. Normally, the infrared radiation from the ground is greater than that from the air. The surchallenge infrared radiation is what is measured by the instrument provided in the jiyuushikan.org Surchallenge Temperature Protocol: the instrument converts the infrared radiation from a surchallenge (the grass, or asphalt, or bare ground) into a temperature. (For further information about the Surchallenge Temperature watch “Teacher’s Guide/Protocols” under “Teachers” in the drop-down menu.)

If you include up all the infrared radiation, the net infrared radiation is upward (upwelling).

The net radiation in Figure 2 is the incoming radiation (downwelling solar and infrared) minus the outgoing radiation (reflected solar and upwelling infrared). That is, the net radiation is downward in between 5 hours past midnight (0500) and 19 hours previous midnight (1900 or 7 p.m.).

I think I’ve encouraged you (and also myself) why the warmest air temperature isn’t when the sunlight is strongest. But why isn’t the warmest temperature at around 19 hours previous midnight when the net radiation stops heating the ground and also starts to go negative?

The factor is that warm is lost with convection.

Air curleas carry warm away from the surconfront. Apparently, at 4 p.m. (1600) regional time on both days in Figure 2, the incoming power from the net radiation just balances the net outgoing power from convection (convection brings up heat from the ground to 1.5 meters, but it likewise carries warmth from 1.5 meters upward), and also the air temperature reaches its maximum. Before 1600 (4 p.m.), the net radiation brings in more power than convection curleas remove, and the air temperature boosts. After 1600 (4 p.m.), convection carries ameans even more warm than the radiation is bringing in, and the temperature decreases.

Sometimes we speak to the adding up of incoming and also outgoing warmth a “warm budgain,” bereason of the similarity to money. When you save more money than you spfinish, the amount of money in your bank account — or in your piggy bank — boosts. If you spfinish more money than you save, the amount of money in your financial institution account or piggy bank gets smaller sized. When you spfinishing as a lot as you are putting in, the amount of money stays the same.

What around the surface temperature? This is a tiny more complicated, because the ground is not just shedding energy through convection currental fees, but it is also losing energy with evaporation and also heating up the cooler soil listed below. These added losses lead to the surconfront temperature dropping previously in the day than the air temperature, approximately 14 hours previous midnight.

At night, points are in some ways simpler. Tright here is no sunlight. On clear nights via little bit wind, such as those illustrated in Figures 1 and 2, the air and also ground save cooling off by giving off infrared radiation (note that the net radiation at the bottom of Figure 2 is negative throughout the night). Because this proceeds all night, the coolest temperatures are in the at an early stage morning, close to the moment of sunclimb.

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Heat move by air (convection) occurs once winds stir up the air close to the surchallenge. This complicates the situation. On average, convection often tends to slow the temperature drop at 1.5 meters, through the minimum near sunclimb.