The intermolecular forces between $\ce{CO2}$ molecules are dispersion forces, while the forces between $\ce{CO}$ molecules are mostly dipole-dipole attraction forces. So, why does $\ce{CO2}$ have a higher boiling point than that of $\ce{CO}$?

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CO2 has more electrons than CO. This means that it has a much larger electron cloud as compared to CO, so its more easily polarised and thus, the ease of forming instataneous dipole-induced dipole bonds increases. Even though CO is a polar molecule and it forms permanent dipole-permanent dipole bonds, in this case the id-id bonds are stronger.

P.s. Just a 17 year old A Level Chem student here, I might be wrong


The larger the small covalent molecule, the greater the intermolecular bonds, hence higher boiling / melting point.

$\ce{CO2}$ has 3 atoms involved in the molecule and is therefore larger than $\ce{O2}$ that has 2 atoms. Hence, $\ce{CO2}$ has a higher boiling / melting point compared to $\ce{O2}$. (Exception to this is water molecules.)



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