Like Dissolves Like Hydrophilic and also Hydrophobic Molecules
Soaps, Detergents, and also Dry-Cleaning Agents Units of Concentration

Like Dissolves Like

By convention, we assume that one or more solutesdissettle in a solvent to create a mixturerecognized as the solution. The photographsthat accompany this section show what happens as soon as we include apair of solutes to a pair of solvents.


The solutes have 2 things in prevalent. They are both solids,and also they both have actually a deep violet or purple color. The solventsare both colorless liquids, which execute not mix.

The distinction in between the solutes is straightforward to understand also.Iodine consists of individual I2 molecules heldtogether by relatively weak intermolecular bonds. Potassiumpermanganate consists of K+ and also MnO4-ions organized together by the strong force of attraction between ionsof opposite charge. It is therefore a lot simpler to sepaprice the I2molecules in iodine than it is to sepaprice the ions in KMnO4.

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Tbelow is additionally a significant distinction in between the solvents:CCl4 and also H2O. The distinction in between theelectronegativities of the carbon and chlorine atoms in CCl4is so little (EN = 0.56) that tbelow is reasonably littleionic character in the CCl bonds.

Even if tbelow was some separation of charge in these bonds,the CCl4 molecule wouldn"t be polar, bereason it has actually asymmetrical form in which the four chlorine atoms suggest towardthe corners of a tetrahedron, as presented in the figure below. CCl4is therefore ideal described as a nonpolar solvent.


The distinction in between the electronegativities of the hydrogenand oxygen atoms in water is much bigger (EN = 1.24),and the HO bonds in this molecule are therefore polar. If the H2Omolecule was straight, the polarity of the two OH bondswould cancel, and the molecule would certainly have no net dipole moment.Water molecules are not straight, yet, they have a bent, orangular form. As an outcome, water molecules have distinctpositive and also negative poles, and water is a polar molecule, aspresented in the number below. Water is therefore classified as a polarsolvent.

Due to the fact that water molecules are bent, or angular, they have distinct negative and positive poles. H2O is therefore an example of a polar solvent

Due to the fact that the solvents do not mix, as soon as water and carbontetrachloride are added to a separatory funnel, two separateliquid phases are plainly visible. We deserve to use the relativedensities of CCl4 (1.594 g/cm3) and also H2O(1.0 g/cm3) to decide which phase is water and also whichis carbon tetrachloride. The denser CCl4 settles tothe bottom of the funnel.

When a couple of crystals of iodine are included to the separatoryfunnel and also the contents of the funnel are shaken, the I2dissolves in the CCl4 layer to create a violet-coloredsolution. The water layer remains fundamentally colormuch less, whichsuggests that little if any I2 dissolves in water.

When this experiment is recurring through potassium permanganate,the water layer picks up the characteristic purple shade of theMnO4- ion, and the CCl4 layerstays colorless. This argues that KMnO4 dissolvesin water however not in carbon tetrachloride. The outcomes of thisexperiment are summarized in the table listed below.

Solubilities of I2and also KMnO4 in CCl4and also Water

This table raises two crucial questions. Why does KMnO4dissettle in water, however not carbon tetrachloride? Why does I2dissolve in carbon tetrachloride, but not water?

It takes many power to separate the K+ and MnO4-ions in potassium permanganate. But these ions have the right to form weakbonds via bordering water molecules, as shown in the figurebelow.

KMnO4 dissolves in water bereason the energy released when bonds form between the K+ ion and also the negative end of the bordering water molecules and also between the MnO4- ion and also the positive finish of the solvent molecules compensates for the energy it takes to separate the K+ and also MnO4- ions.

The power released once these bonds form compensates for theenergy that has to be invested to rip acomponent the KMnO4crystal. No such bonds have the right to create in between the K+ or MnO4-ions and the nonpolar CCl4 molecules. As an outcome,KMnO4 can not disdeal with in CCl4.

The I2 molecules in iodine and the CCl4molecules in carbon tetrachloride are both organized together by weakintermolecular bonds. Similar intermolecular bonds deserve to formin between I2 and also CCl4 molecules in a solutionof I2 in CCL4. I2 thereforeeasily dissolves in CCl4. The molecules in water arehosted together by hydrogen bonds that are stronger than mostintermolecular bonds. No interaction between I2 and H2Omolecules is solid enough to compensate for the hydrogen bondsthat have to be broken to disresolve iodine in water, so relativelylittle I2 dissolves in H2O.

We have the right to summarize the results of thisexperiment by noting that nonpolar solutes (such as I2)dissettle in nonpolar solvents (such as CCl4),whereas polar solutes (such as KMnO4)disresolve in polar solvents (such as H2O). Asa basic dominion, we deserve to conclude that favor dissolves like.

Practice Problem 1:

Elepsychological phosphorus is often stored under water because it does not dissettle in water. Elepsychological phosphorus is incredibly soluble in carbon disulfide, however. Exordinary why P4 is soluble in CS2 however not in water.

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Practice Problem 2:

The iodide ion reacts through iodine in aqueous solution to create the I3-, or triiodide, ion.

I-(aq) + I2(aq)


What would occur if CCl4 was added to an aqueous solution that had a mixture of KI, I2, and also KI3?

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Hydrophilic andHydrophobic Molecules

The family members of compounds recognized as the hydrocarbonscontain just carbon and hydrogen. Due to the fact that the difference betweenthe electronegativities of carbon and hydrogen is small (EN= 0.40), hydrocarbons are nonpolar. As a result, they perform notdissettle in polar solvents such as water. Hydrocarbons aretherefore explained as immiscible (literally,"not mixable") in water.

When one of the hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon is replacedwith an -OH team, the compound is recognized as an alcohol,as shown in the number below. As could be intended, alcohols haveproperties in between the extremes of hydrocarbons and also water. Whenthe hydrocarbon chain is short, the alcohol is soluble in water.Methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH)are infinitely soluble in water, for example. Tbelow is no limiton the amount of these alcohols that have the right to dissettle in a givenquantity of water. The alcohol in beer, wine, and also difficult liquors isethanol, and also mixtures of ethanol and also water have the right to have actually anyconcentration in between the extremes of pure alcohol (200 proof)and pure water (0 proof).

The structure of the alcohol well-known as ethanol.

As the hydrocarbon chain becomes much longer, the alcohol becomesless soluble in water, as shown in the table below.

Solubilities of Alcohols in Water

Formula Name Solubility in Water (g/100 g)
CH3OH methanol infinitely soluble
CH3CH2OH ethanol infinitely soluble
CH3(CH2)2OH propanol infinitely soluble
CH3(CH2)3OH butanol 9
CH3(CH2)4OH pentanol 2.7
CH3(CH2)5OH hexanol 0.6
CH3(CH2)6OH heptanol 0.18
CH3(CH2)7OH octanol 0.054
CH3(CH2)9OH decanol insoluble in water

One finish of the alcohol molecules has so much nonpolarcharacter it is referred to as hydrophobic (literally,"water-hating"), as displayed in the figure listed below. Thevarious other end has an -OH team that can develop hydrogen bonds tobordering water molecules and also is therefore said to be hydrophilic(literally, "water-loving"). As the hydrocarbon chainbecomes longer, the hydrophobic character of the moleculeincreases, and also the solubility of the alcohol in water graduallydecreases until it becomes basically insoluble in water.

One finish of this alcohol molecule is nonpolar, and therefore hydrophobic. The various other end is polar, and therefore hydrophilic.

People encountering the terms hydrophilic and also hydrophobicfor the initially time occasionally have actually challenge remembering whichmeans water-hating and also which represents water-loving. If youhave the right to remember that Hamlet"s girlfriend was named Ophelia (notOphobia), you could have the ability to remember that the prefix philo-is commonly provided to explain love for instance, in philanthropist,philharmonic, philosopher, and also so on.

The data in the table above show one consequence of thebasic ascendancy that like dissolves favor. As molecules come to be morenonpolar, they come to be less soluble in water. The table belowshows an additional example of this ascendancy. NaCl is relatively soluble inwater. As the solvent becomes more nonpolar, the solubility ofthis polar solute decreases.

Solubility of Sodium Chloride in Water andin Alcohols

Formula of Solvent Solvent Name Solubility of NaCl (g/100 g solvent)
H2O water 35.92
CH3OH methanol 1.40
CH3CH2OH ethanol 0.065
CH3(CH2)2OH propanol 0.012
CH3(CH2)3OH butanol 0.005
CH3(CH2)4OH pentanol 0.0018

Soaps, Detergents,and Dry-Cleaning Agents

The jiyuushikan.orgistry behind the manufacture of soap hasn"t changedgiven that it was made from animal fat and also the ash from timber firesvirtually 5000 years back. Solid animal fats (such as the tallowobtained during the butchering of sheep or cattle) and liquidplant oils (such as palm oil and coconut oil) are still heated inthe presence of a solid base to form a soft, waxy product thatboosts the capability of water to wash amethod the grease and also oilthat forms on our bodies and also our clothing.

Animal fats and plant oils contain compounds well-known as fattyacids. Fatty acids, such as stearic acid (check out number below),have little, polar, hydrophilic heads attached to long, nonpolar,hydrophobic tails.


Fatty acids are seldom found by themselves in nature. They areusually bound to molecules of glycerol (HOCH2CHOHCH2OH)to create triglycerides, such as the triglyceride well-known as trimyristin,which deserve to be isolated in high yield from nutmeg, presented in thefigure listed below.


These triglycerides break dvery own in the presence of a strongbase to form the Na+ or K+ salt of thefatty acid, as presented in the figure listed below. This reaction is calledsaponification, which literally implies "the makingof soap."

The saponification of the trimyristin extracted from nutmeg.

Part of the cleaning activity of soap outcomes from the fact thatsoap molecules are surfactants they tendto concentprice on the surconfront of water. They cling to the surfacebecause they attempt to orient their polar CO2-heads toward water molecules and their nonpolar CH3CH2CH2...tails amethod from bordering water molecules.

Water can not wash the soil out of clothing by itself because thesoil pposts that cling to textile fibers are extended by alayer of nonpolar grease or oil molecules, which repels water.The nonpolar tails of the soap molecules on the surconfront of waterdisfix in the grease or oil that surrounds a soil pwrite-up, asshown in the number below. The soap molecules therefore disperse,or emulsify, the soil pshort articles, which renders it possibleto wash these pwrite-ups out of the clothing.

Most soaps are more thick than water. They can be made tofloat, yet, by incorporating air into the soap during itsmanufacture. Most soaps are also opaque; they absorb fairly thantransmit light. Translucent soaps can be made by adding alcohol,sugar, and also glycerol, which slow-moving dvery own the growth of soap crystalswhile the soap solidifies. Liquid soaps are made by replacing thesodium salts of the fatty acids through the more soluble K+or NH4+ salts.

Forty years earlier, even more than 90% of the cleaning agents sold inthe USA were soaps. Today soap represents less than 20%of the sector for cleaning agents. The primary reason for thedecline in the popularity of soap is the reactivity between soapand "hard" water. The most numerous positive ions intap water are Na+, Ca2+, and also Mg2+ions. Water that is specifically affluent in Ca2+, Mg2+,or Fe3+ ions is shelp to be tough. Hard water interferesvia the activity of soap because these ions combine through soapmolecules to create insoluble precipitates that have no cleaningpower. These salts not just decrease the concentration of thesoap molecules in solution, they actually bind soil pshort articles toclothes, leaving a dull, gray film.

One way about this difficulty is to "soften" the waterby replacing the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions through Na+ions. Many type of water softeners are filled via a resin that contains-SO3- ions attached to a polymer, as shownin the number below. The resin is treated through NaCl until each-SO3- ion picks up an Na+ ion.When hard water flows over this resin, Ca2+ and also Mg2+ions bind to the -SO3- ions on the polymerchain and also Na+ ions are released into solution.Periodically, the resin becomes saturated with Ca2+and Mg2+ ions. When this happens, it has to bereproduced by being washed with a concentrated solution of NaCl.

When a water softener is "charged," it is waburned through a focused NaCl solution till every one of the -SO3- ions pick up an Na+ ion. The softener then picks up Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from hard water, replacing these through Na+ ions.

Tbelow is another method about the problem of hard water. Insteadof rerelocating Ca2+ and also Mg2+ ions from water,we can uncover a cleaning agent that doesn"t develop insoluble saltsthrough these ions. Synthetic detergents are examples of suchcleaning agents. Detergent molecules consist of long, hydrophobichydrocarbon tails attached to polar, hydrophilic -SO3-or -OSO3- heads, as presented in the figurebelow.

By themselves, detergents don"t have actually the cleaning power ofsoap. "Builders" are therefore included to syntheticdetergents to rise their strength. These building contractors are oftensalts of extremely charged ions, such as the triphosphate (P3O105-)ion.

Cloth fibers swell once they are washed in water. This leadsto transforms in the dimensions of the fabric that can cause wrinkles-- which are regional distortions in the framework of the fiber or eveneven more major damage, such as shrinking. These difficulties deserve to beavoided by "dry cleaning," which supplies a nonpolarsolvent that does not adhere to, or wet, the cloth fibers. Thenonpolar solvents provided in dry cleaning disresolve the nonpolargrease or oil layer that coats soil pshort articles, freeing the soilpwrite-ups to be rerelocated by detergents included to the solvent, or bythe tumbling activity inside the machine. Dry cleaning has theadded advantage that it deserve to remove oily soil at lowertemperatures than soap or detergent dissolved in water, so it issafer for delicate fabrics.

When dry cleaning was initially introduced in the United Statesbetween 1910 and 1920, the solvent was a mixture of hydrocarbonsisolated from petroleum when gasoline was sleek. Over theyears, these flammable hydrocarbon solvents have actually been replaced byhalogenated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethane (Cl3C-CH3),trichloroethylene (Cl2C=CHCl), and also perchloroethylene(Cl2C=CCl2).

Units ofConcentration

The concentration of a solution is characterized asthe amount of solute dissolved in a offered amount of solvent orsolution.

Tright here are many type of means in which the concentration of a solutionhave the right to be explained.

The molarity (M) of a solution isidentified as the ratio of the variety of moles of solute in thesolution separated by the volume of the solution in liters.

Practice Problem 3:

At 25oC, a saturated solution of chlorine in water deserve to be all set by disaddressing 5.77 grams of Cl2 gas in enough water to provide a liter of solution. Calculate the molarity of this solution.

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A 3.5% solution of hydrochloric acid, for example, has actually 3.5grams of HCl in every 100 grams of solution. The concentration ofa solution in devices of moles per liter can be calculated from themass percent and also density of the solution.

It is additionally possible to define the concentration of asolution in regards to the volume percent. This unit isoffered to describe solutions of one liquid liquified in another ormixtures of gases. Wine labels, for instance, describe thealcoholic content as 12% by volume, because 12% of the totalvolume is alcohol.

Molarity is the concentration unit most commonly used byjiyuushikan.orgists. It has actually one disbenefit. It tells us exactly how much solutewe need to make a solution, and it offers us the volume of the solutiondeveloped, yet it doesn"t tell us exactly how a lot solvent willbe compelled to prepare the solution. We have the right to make a 0.100 Msolution of CuSO4, for instance, by disresolving 0.100mole of CuSO4 5 H2O in sufficient water togive one liter of solution. But just how much water is enough? Becausethe CuSO4 5 H2O crystals occupy somevolume, it takes much less than a liter of water, yet we have actually no ideahow much much less.

When it is crucial to recognize just how a lot solute and solvent arecurrent in a solution, jiyuushikan.orgists usage two various other concentrationunits: molality and also mole fraction.

The molality (m) of a solution ischaracterized as the number of moles of solute in the solution dividedby the mass in kilograms of the solvent offered to make thesolution.

A 0.100 m solution of CuSO4,for instance, can be prepared by disfixing 0.100 mole of CuSO4in 1 kilogram of water. Because the thickness of water is about 1g/cm3, or 1 g/mL, the volume of water supplied to preparethis solution will certainly be about one liter. The full volumeof the solution, but, will certainly be bigger than 1 liter because theCuSO4 5 H2O crystals will undoubtedlyoccupy some volume. As a result, a 0.100 m solution isslightly more dilute than a 0.100 M solution of the samesolute.

Practice Problem 4:

A saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide in water have the right to be prepared by bubbling H2S gas into water till no even more dissolves. Calculate the molality of this solution if 0.385 grams of H2S gas disfix in 100 grams of water at 20oC and 1 atm.

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Molality has an essential benefit over molarity. Themolarity of an aqueous solution transforms via temperature, becausethe thickness of water is sensitive to temperature. Becausemolality is defined in terms of the mass of the solvent, not itsvolume, the molality of a solution does not readjust withtemperature.

The ratio of solute to solvent in a solution deserve to additionally beexplained in terms of the mole fraction of the solute or thesolvent in a solution. By interpretation, the mole fractionof any component of a solution is the fractivity of the totalvariety of moles of solute and solvent that come from thatcomponent. The symbol for mole fractivity is a Greek capital letterchi: C. The mole fractivity ofthe solute is identified as the number of moles of solutedivided by the full number of moles of solute and also solvent.

Conversely, the mole fractivity of the solvent is thevariety of moles of solvent split by the total variety of molesof solute and solvent.

In a solution that has a single solute liquified in asolvent, the sum of the mole fractivity of the solute and also thesolvent have to be equal to 1.

Csolute+ Csolvent= 1

Practice Problem 5:

Calculate the mole fractions of both the solute and also the solvent in a saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide in water at 20oC and 1 atm.