Table 5.1 mirrors the 4 significant categories of industry frameworks and also their attributes.

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Table 5.1 Market Structure Characteristics

Free entry and exit

Barriers to entry

No entry

Perfect competition is on one finish of the sector framework spectrum, with countless firms. Words, “numerous” has special definition in this context. In a perfectly competitive market, each firm is so little loved one to the industry that it cannot influence the price of the good. Each perfectly competitive firm is a price taker. Because of this, countless firms suggests that each firm is so small that it is a price taker.

Monopoly is the various other excessive of the sector framework spectrum, via a solitary firm. Monopolies have actually monopoly power, or the capability to change the price of the excellent. Monopoly power is likewise dubbed sector power, and also is measured by the Lerner Index.

This chapter specifies and also explains two intermediary industry structures: monopolistic competition and oligopoly.

Monopolistic Competition = A market framework identified by a differentiated product and freedom of entry and departure.

Monopolistically Competitive firms have one characteristic that is prefer a syndicate (a differentiated product offers sector power), and also one characteristic that is like a competitive firm (liberty of enattempt and exit). This form of sector framework is common in market-based economies, and a pilgrimage to the grocery save reveals huge numbers of differentiated products: toothpaste, laundry soap, breakfast cereal, and so on.

Next off, we define the industry framework oligopoly.

Oligopoly = A industry framework characterized by barriers to entry and also a couple of firms.

Oligopoly is a fascinating industry structure as a result of interactivity and also interdependency between oligopolistic firms. What one firm does affects the various other firms in the oligopoly.

Because monopolistic competition and also oligopoly are intermediary industry structures, the following area will testimonial the properties and also attributes of perfect competition and also monopoly. These attributes will certainly administer the defining attributes of monopolistic competition and oligopoly.

5.1.2 Review of Perfect Competition

The perfectly competitive market has 4 characteristics:

(1) Homogenous product,

(2) Large variety of buyers and also sellers (countless firms),

(3) Freedom of entry and also departure, and

(4) Perfect indevelopment.

The opportunity of entry and also leave of firms occurs in the lengthy run, since the number of firms is resolved in the short run.

An equilibrium is characterized as a point wbelow there is no tendency to readjust. The idea of equilibrium have the right to be extfinished to encompass the brief run and lengthy run.

Quick Run Equilibrium = A point from which tright here is no tendency to readjust (a stable state), and a resolved number of firms.

Long Run Equilibrium = A allude from which tbelow is no tendency to adjust (a secure state), and enattempt and also leave of firms.

In the brief run, the variety of firms is solved, whereas in the lengthy run, enattempt and also leave of firms is feasible, based upon profit problems. We will compare the brief and also long run for a competitive firm in Figure 5.1. The 2 panels in Figure 5.1 are for the firm (left) and market (right), through vastly various devices. This is emphasized by using “q” for the firm’s output level, and “Q” for the industry output level. The graph mirrors both short run and lengthy run equilibria for a perfectly competitive firm and also sector. In brief run equilibrium, the firms encounters a high price (PSR), produces quantity QSR at PSR = MC, and earns positive earnings πSR.


Figure 5.1 Brief Run and also Long Run Equilibria for a Perfectly Competitive Firm

Positive earnings in the brief run (πSR > 0) result in enattempt of other firms, as tright here are no barriers to enattempt in a competitive industry. The entry of new firms shifts the supply curve in the market graph from supply SSR to supply SLR. Entry will certainly take place till revenues are thrust to zero, and also long run equilibrium is got to at Q*LR. In the long run, economic earnings are equal to zero, so there is no impetus for entry or exit. Each firm is earning specifically what it is worth, the chance costs of all sources. In long run equilibrium, revenues are zero (πLR = 0), and price amounts to the minimum average cost allude (P = min AC = MC). Marginal prices equal average costs at the minimum average cost suggest. At the lengthy run price, supply equates to demand also at price PLR.

5.1.3 Rewatch of Monopoly

The features of monopoly include: (1) one firm, (2) one product, and also (3) no entry (Table 5.1). The monopoly solution is displayed in Figure 5.2.


Figure 5.2 Monopoly Profit Maximization

Note that long-run profits deserve to exist for a syndicate, given that obstacles to enattempt halt any type of potential entrants from joining the sector. In the next section, we will discover industry structures that lie between the 2 extremes of perfect competition and monopoly.

5.2 Monopolistic Competition

Monopolistic competition is a industry structure defined by totally free entry and departure, favor competition, and differentiated assets, favor monopoly. Differentiated assets provide each firm with some sector power. Advertising and marketing of each individual product provide uniqueness that causes the demand curve of each excellent to be downward sloping. Free enattempt indicates that each firm competes with other firms and also earnings are equal to zero on lengthy run equilibrium. If a monopolistically competitive firm is earning positive financial revenues, entry will take place till financial revenues are equal to zero.

5.2.1 Monopolistic Competition in the Quick and also Long Runs

The demand curve of a monopolistically competitive firm is downward sloping, indicating that the firm has actually a level of sector power. Market power derives from product differentiation, since each firm produces a different product. Each excellent has actually many type of cshed substitutes, so sector power is limited: if the price is enhanced too much, consumers will certainly transition to competitors’ products.


Figure 5.3 Monopolistic Competition in the Quick Run and Long Run

Short and lengthy run equilibria for the monopolistically competitive firm are displayed in Figure 5.3. The demand curve encountering the firm is downward sloping, but reasonably elastic as a result of the availability of close substitutes. The brief run equilibrium shows up in the left hand also panel, and also is practically the same to the monopoly graph. The just distinction is that for a monopolistically competitive firm, the demand is fairly elastic, or level. Otherwise, the brief run profit-maximizing solution is the exact same as a monopoly. The firm sets marginal revenue equal to marginal price, produces output level q*SR and also charges price PSR. The profit level is shown by the shaded rectangle π.

The lengthy run equilibrium is presented in the ideal hand also panel. Entry of various other firms occurs until revenues are equal to zero; full profits are equal to full prices. Thus, the demand also curve is tangent to the average price curve at the optimal long run quantity, q*LR. The lengthy run profit-maximizing amount is discovered where marginal revenue equates to marginal cost, which likewise occurs at q*LR.

5.2.2 Economic Efficiency and also Monopolistic Competition

Tright here are two resources of inefficiency in monopolistic competition. First, dead weight loss (DWL) because of monopoly power: price is higher than marginal price (P > MC). Second, excess capacity: the equilibrium quantity is smaller than the lowest price amount at the minimum suggest on the average expense curve (q*LR minAC). These 2 sources of ineffectiveness can be seen in Figure 5.4.


Figure 5.4 Comparikid of Efficiency for Competition and also Monopolistic Competition

First, tbelow is dead weight loss (DWL) as a result of industry power: the price is higher than marginal price in long run equilibrium. In the best hand panel of Figure 5.4, the price at the long run equilibrium amount is PLR, and marginal price is lower: PLR > MC. This reasons dead weight loss to society, since the competitive equilibrium would be at a bigger quantity where P = MC. Total dead weight loss is the shaded location beneath the demand also curve and above the MC curve in figure 5.4.

The second source of inperformance linked with monopolistic competition is excess capacity. This have the right to also be watched in the right hand also panel of Figure 5.4, wright here the long run equilibrium quantity is reduced than the quantity wright here average expenses are lowest (qminAC). As such, the firm can develop at a reduced expense by boosting output to the level where average costs are minimized.

Given these two inefficiencies linked with monopolistic competition, some individuals and also teams have dubbed for government intervention. Regulation might be provided to reduce or get rid of the inefficiencies by rerelocating product differentiation. This would result in a single product instead of a big number of close substitutes.

Regulation is probably not a great solution to the inefficiencies of monopolistic competition, for two reasons. First, the industry power of a typical firm in most monopolistically competitive industries is small. Each monopolistically competitive industry has actually many type of firms that produce sufficiently substitutable assets to administer sufficient competition to result in fairly low levels of sector power. If the firms have little levels of market power, then the deadweight loss and excess capacity inefficiencies are most likely to be tiny.

Second, the advantage offered by monopolistic competition is product diversity. The get from product diversity can be huge, as consumers are willing to pay for various features and qualities. As such, the gain from product diversity is likely to outweigh the expenses of inefficiency. Evidence for this insurance claim have the right to be viewed in market-based economic situations, wright here there is a large amount of product diversity.

The following chapter will introduce and also talk about oligopoly: strategic interactions in between firms!

5.3 Oligopoly Models

An oligopoly is identified as a sector structure via few firms and obstacles to enattempt.

Oligopoly = A market structure through few firms and also obstacles to enattempt.

Tbelow is often a high level of competition in between firms, as each firm renders decisions on prices, amounts, and also proclaiming to maximize earnings. Since tright here are a little variety of firms in an oligopoly, each firm’s profit level counts not just on the firm’s own decisions, but likewise on the decisions of the various other firms in the oligopolistic sector.

5.3.1 Strategic Interactions

Each firm should take into consideration both: (1) various other firms’ reactions to a firm’s very own decisions, and also (2) the own firm’s reactions to the various other firms’ decisions. Hence, tbelow is a continuous interplay between decisions and also reactions to those decisions by all firms in the industry. Each oligopolist have to take into account these strategic interactions when making decisions. Due to the fact that all firms in an oligopoly have outcomes that depend on the other firms, these strategic interactions are the structure of the research and also knowledge of oligopoly.

For instance, each auto firm’s sector share depends on the prices and amounts of every one of the various other firms in the industry. If Ford lowers prices family member to other car manufacturers, it will certainly boost its industry share at the cost of the other vehicle companies.

When making decisions that consider the feasible reactions of other firms, firm supervisors typically assume that the supervisors of contending firms are rational and intelligent. These strategic interactions form the research of game concept, the topic of Chapter 6 below. John Nash (1928-2015), an Amerihave the right to mathematician, was a pioneer in game theory. Economists and mathematicians use the idea of a Nash Equilibrium (NE) to define a widespread outcome in game concept that is typically supplied in the study of oligopoly.

Nash Equilibrium = An outcome wbelow there is no tendency to adjust based on each individual picking a strategy provided the strategy of rivals.

In the study of oligopoly, the Nash Equilibrium assumes that each firm renders rational profit-maximizing decisions while holding the habits of rival firms constant. This presumption is made to simplify oligopoly models, given the potential for huge complexity of strategic interactions between firms. As an aside, this assumption is one of the amazing themes of the movement photo, “A Beautiful Mind,” starring Russell Crowe as John Nash. The concept of Nash Equilibrium is additionally the structure of the models of oligopoly presented in the next 3 sections: the Cournot, Bertrand, and also Stackelberg models of oligopoly.

5.3.2 Cournot Model

Augustin Cournot (1801-1877), a French mathematician, emerged the initially model of oligopoly explored below. The Cournot design is a version of oligopoly in which firms produce a homogeneous excellent, assuming that the competitor’s output is resolved when deciding how much to create.

A numerical instance of the Cournot version follows, wbelow it is assumed that there are two the same firms (a duopoly), via output offered by Qi (i=1,2). As such, complete industry output is equal to: Q = Q1 + Q2. Market demand also is a role of price and given by Qd = Qd(P), thus the inverse demand feature is P = P(Qd). Note that the price relies on the sector output Q, which is the amount of both individual firm’s outputs. In this means, each firm’s output has actually an influence on the price and profits of both firms. This is the basis for strategic interaction in the Cournot model: if one firm increases output, it lowers the price dealing with both firms. The inverse demand function and cost function are given in Equation 5.1.

(5.1) P = 40 – QC(Qi) = 7Qi i = 1,2

Each firm chooses the optimal, profit-maximizing output level offered the other firm’s output. This will cause a Nash Equilibrium, since each firm is holding the behavior of the rival continuous. Firm One maximizes revenues as adheres to.

max π1 = TR1 – TC1

max π1 = P(Q)Q1 – C(Q1)

max π1 = <40 – Q>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = <40 – Q1 – Q2>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = 40Q1 – Q12 – Q2Q1 – 7Q1

∂π1/∂Q1= 40 – 2Q1 – Q2 – 7 = 0

2Q1 = 33 – Q2

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5Q2

This equation is dubbed the “Reactivity Function” of Firm One. This is as far as the mathematical solution deserve to be streamlined, and represents the Cournot solution for Firm One. It is a reaction attribute because it defines Firm One’s reaction given the output level of Firm Two. This equation represents the strategic interactions between the 2 firms, as changes in Firm Two’s output level will lead to changes in Firm One’s response. Firm One’s optimal output level counts on Firm Two’s habits and also decision making. Oligopolists are interconnected in both behavior and also outcomes.

The two firms are assumed to be similar in this duopoly. Therefore, Firm Two’s reaction attribute will be symmetrical to the Firm One’s reaction function (inspect this by establishing up and also resolving the profit-maximization equation for Firm Two):

Q2* = 16.5 – 0.5Q1

The two reactivity functions can be used to deal with for the Cournot-Nash Equilibrium. There are 2 equations and 2 unknowns (Q1 and also Q2), so a numerical solution is discovered with substitution of one equation into the various other.

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5(16.5 – 0.5Q1)

Q1* = 16.5 – 8.25 + 0.25Q1

Q1* = 8.25 + 0.25Q1

0.75Q1* = 8.25

Q1* = 11

Due to symmeattempt from the presumption of identical firms:

Qi = 11 i = 1,2Q = 22systems P = 18 USD/unit

Profits for each firm are:

πi = P(Q)Qi – C(Qi) = 18(11) – 7(11) = (18 – 7)11 = 11(11) = 121 USD

This is the Cournot-Nash solution for oligopoly, uncovered by each firm assuming that the other firm holds its output level consistent. The Cournot model have the right to be quickly extfinished to more than 2 firms, yet the math does gain increasingly facility as more firms are added. Economists utilize the Cournot model because is based upon intuitive and realistic assumptions, and the Cournot solution is intermediary in between the outcomes of the 2 excessive market structures of perfect competition and monopoly.

This deserve to be checked out by addressing the numerical example for competition, Cournot, and monopoly models, and also comparing the options for each market framework.

In a competitive market, cost-free enattempt results in price equal to marginal price (P = MC). In the instance of the numerical example, PC = 7. When this competitive price is substituted into the inverse demand equation, 7 = 40 – Q, or Qc = 33. Profits are uncovered by addressing (P – MC)Q, or πc = (7 – 7)Q = 0. The competitive solution is provided in Equation (5.2).

(5.2) Pc = 7 USD/unitQc = 33 unitsπc = 0 USD

The monopoly solution is discovered by maximizing revenues as a single firm.

max πm = TRm – TCm

max πm = P(Qm)Qm – C(Qm)

max πm = <40 – Qm>Qm – 7Qm

max πm = 40Qm – Qm2 – 7Qm

∂πm/∂Qm= 40 – 2Qm – 7 = 0

2Qm = 33

Qm* = 16.5

Pm = 40 – 16.5 = 23.5

πm = (Pm – MCm)Qm = (23.5 – 7)16.5 = 16.5(16.5) = 272.25 USD

The monopoly solution is offered in Equation (5.3).

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(5.3) Pm = 23.5 USD/unit Qm = 16.5 unitsπm = 272.5 USD

The competitive, Cournot, and monopoly remedies have the right to be compared on the very same graph for the numerical instance (Figure 5.5).