Kendra Cherry, MS, is an writer and educational consultant concentrated on helping students learn about psychology." data-inline-tooltip="true">Kendra Cherry

Verywell / Joshua Seong

What Are the Big Five Dimensions of Personality?

Today, many type of researchers believe that there are 5 core personality traits. Evidence of this concept has been prospering for many type of years, start with the research study of D. W. Fiske (1949) and also later on broadened upon by other researchers consisting of Normale (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and also McCrae & Costa (1987).

You are watching: Which of the following is not one of the big five personality dimensions

The "huge five" are broad categories of personality traits. While tright here is a far-reaching body of literature sustaining this five-factor version of personality, researchers don't constantly agree on the precise labels for each measurement.

You can find it advantageous to usage the acronym OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extravariation, agreeableness, and neuroticism) when trying to remember the massive 5 traits. CANOE (for conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion) is another generally used acronym.

It is essential to note that each of the 5 personality factors represents a variety in between 2 extremes. For instance, extravariation represents a continuum between excessive extravariation and extremeintrovariation. In the genuine people, the majority of world lie somewbelow in in between the two polar ends of each dimension.


This trait features qualities such as imagination and also understanding. People who are high in this trait likewise tend to have actually a wide selection of interests. They are curious around the people and various other civilization and also eager to learn brand-new things and also enjoy new experiences.

People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous andimaginative. People low in this trait are regularly much even more traditional and might battle through abstract thinking.


Open to trying new things

Focprovided on tackling new challenges

Happy to think about abstract concepts


Dislikes change

Does not reap brand-new things

Resists new ideas

Not very imaginative

Dislikes abstract or theoretical concepts


Standard functions of this measurement incorporate high levels of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and also goal-directed behaviors. Highly conscientious human being tend to be organized and also mindful of details. They plan ahead, think about just how their behavior affects others, and are mindful of deadlines.


Spends time preparing

Finishes important jobs right away

Pays attention to detail

Enjoys having a collection schedule


Dislikes framework and schedules

Makes messes and doesn't take care of things

Fails to return points or put them ago wbelow they belong

Fails to complete essential or assigned tasks


Extraversion (or extroversion)is defined by excitcapability, socicapability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and also high amounts of emotional expressiveness. People who are high in extraversion are outgoing and tend to acquire power in social situations. Being roughly various other human being helps them feel energized and excited.

People that are low in extraversion (or introverted) tfinish to be even more scheduled and have less energy to expfinish in social settings. Social occasions have the right to feel draining and introverts often require a period of solitude and also quiet in order to "recharge."


Enjoys being the facility of attention

Likes to start conversations

Enjoys meeting brand-new people

Has a wide social circle of friends and also acquaintances

Finds it basic to make brand-new friends

Feels energized as soon as about other people

Say points prior to reasoning about them


Prefers solitude

Feels worn down when having actually to socialize a lot

Finds it difficult to begin conversations

Dislikes making small talk

Carefully thinks things through before speaking

Dislikes being the facility of attention


This personality measurement contains features such as trust,altruism, kindness, affection, and also otherprosocial actions. People who are high in agreeableness tfinish to be more cooperative while those low in this trait tend to be more competitive and sometimes even manipulative.


Has a great deal of interest in other people

Cares about others

Enjoys helping and contributing to the happiness of other people

Assists others who are in require of help


Takes little interemainder in others

Doesn't care around how other civilization feel

Has little interest in various other people's problems

Insults and also belittles others

Manipulates others to get what they want


Neuroticism is a trait identified by sadness, moodiness, and also emotional instcapability. Individuals who are high in this trait tfinish to endure mood swings, anxiety, irritcapability, and sadness. Those low in this trait tend to be even more secure and also emotionally long lasting.


Experiences most stress

Worries around many type of different things

Gets upset easily

Experiences dramatic shifts in mood

Feels anxious

Struggles to bounce back after stressful events


Emotionally stable

Deals well through stress

Racount feels sad or depressed

Doesn't issue much

Is incredibly relaxed

Are the Big Five Traits Universal?

McCrae and also his colleagues have actually likewise uncovered that the big 5 traits are likewise remarkably global. One research that looked at human being from even more than 50 various cultures discovered that the 5 dimensions can be accurately offered to describe personality.

Based on this study, many type of psychologists now believe that the 5 personality dimensions are not only universal; they likewise have actually organic beginnings. Psychologist David Buss has proposed that an evolutionary explanation for these 5 core personality traits, saying that these personality traits recurrent the a lot of essential qualities that form our social landscape.

What Factors Influence the Big Five Traits?

Research suggests that both organic and environmental impacts play a role in shaping our personalities. Twin research studies imply that both nature and also nurture play a function in the advance of each of the five personality factors.

One research of the genetic and also ecological underpinnings of the five traits looked at 123 pairs of similar twins and 127 pairs of fraternal twins. The findings suggested that the heritcapacity of each trait was 53 percent for extravariation, 41 percent for agreeableness, 44 percent for conscientiousness, 41 percent for neuroticism, and 61 for openness. 

Longitudinal studies also suggest that these big five personality traits tfinish to be reasonably steady over the course of adulthood. One study of working-age adults discovered that personality tended to be stable over a four-year duration and presented bit adjust as a result of adverse life events.

Studies have displayed that maturation might have actually an affect on the five traits. As world age, they tfinish to end up being less extrevaded, less neurotic, and less open to the suffer. Agreeableness and also conscientiousness, on the various other hand also, tfinish to rise as world thrive older.

A Word From Verywell

Always remember that actions requires an interactivity in between a person's underlying personality and situational variables. The case that a perboy finds himself or herself plays a major function in just how the perchild reacts. However before, in many instances, civilization sell responses that are continual via their underlying personality traits.

These dimensions reexisting broad locations of personality. Research has actually demonstrated that these groupings of features tfinish to occur together in many kind of human being. For example, people that are sociable tend to be talkative. However, these traits carry out not always take place together.Personalityis facility and differed and each person may display habits throughout several of these dimensions.

Ever wonder what your personality form means? Sign up to discover out even more in our Healthy Mind newsletter.

Verywell Mind offers only high-quality sources, including peer-reregarded researches, to assistance the facts within our articles. Read our editorial procedure to learn more about how we fact-check and store our content accurate, dependable, and trusted.
Cobb-Clark, DA & Schurer, S. The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters. 2012; 115(2): 11–15.Marsh, HW, Nagengast, B, & Morin, AJS. Measurement invariance of big-5 components over the lifespan: ESEM tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity, and la dolce vita effects. Developmental Psychology. 2013; 49(6): 1194-1218.McCrae, R R, Terracciano, A., and also Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project. Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: Documents from 50 various societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2005; 88: 547-561.

See more: Key And Peele Hootie And The Blowfish, Hootie Or The Blowfish

Verywell Mind"s content is for informational and educational functions just. Our webwebsite is not intfinished to be a substitute for experienced clinical advice, diagnosis, or therapy.