The brain is a marvelous body organ. And it"s a hungry one, as well. The significant fuel for the brain is glucose—a carbohydrate. The average adult brain represents about (2\%) of our body"s weight, however uses (25\%) of the glucose in the body. In addition, certain areas of the brain use glucose at various rates. If you are concentrating hard (taking a test, for example), particular parts of the brain need a lot of added glucose, while various other components of the brain only usage their normal amount.

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Monosaccharides

Some foods that are high in carbohydrates encompass breview, pasta, and potatoes. Because carbohydprices are easily digested, athletes regularly count on carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs to enable a high level of performance.

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Figure (PageIndex1): Foods that serve as carbohydrate resources.

The term carbohydrate originates from the truth that the majority contain carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1, making for an empirical formula of (ceCH_2O). This is somewhat misleading, because the molecules are not actually hydrates of carbon at all. Carbohydrates are monomers and also polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have multiple hydroxyl groups attached.

Carbohydprices are the a lot of plentiful source of energy found in most foods. The easiest carbohydprices, additionally referred to as basic sugars, are numerous in fruits. A monosaccharide is a carbohydprice consisting of one sugar unit. Common examples of straightforward sugars or monosaccharides are glucose and also fructose. Both of these monosaccharides are described as hexoses, considering that they have six carbons. Glucose is numerous in many plant resources, and also makes up sweeteners such as corn sugar and grape sugar. Fructose is foundin many kind of fruits, and in honey. These sugars are structural isomers of one an additional, via the distinction being that glucose consists of an aldehyde sensible group, whereas fructose contains a ketone sensible team.

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Figure (PageIndex2): Glucose and also fructose are monosaccharides, or simple sugars.

Glucose and fructose are both very soluble in water. In aqueous solution, the predominant forms are not the straight-chain framework presented above. Rather, they take on a cyclic structure (see figure below). Glucose is 6 membered ring, while fructose is a five-membered ring. Both rings contain an oxygen atom.

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Figure (PageIndex3): The cyclic develop of sugars is the favored develop in aqueous solution.

Anvarious other necessary team of monosaccharides are the pentoses, containing 5 carbons in the chain. Ribose and deoxyribose are two pentoses that are components of the frameworks of DNA and RNA.

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Figure (PageIndex4): Ribose and also deoxyribose.

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Summary

Carbohydprices are monomers and polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have multiple hydroxyl groups attached. A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate consisting of one sugar unit. Usual examples of easy sugars or monosaccharides are glucose and also fructose. Another important group of monosaccharides are the pentoses, containing five carbons in the chain; DNA and RNA are partially comprised of pentoses.

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