Author: Achudhan Karunaharamoorthy •Reviewer: Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhDLast reviewed: May 31, 2021Reading time: 4 minutes

The suprahyoid muscles are four muscles located in between the mandible to the hyoid bone.

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With Each Other via adjacent tworry they create the floor of the mouth.


Anatomy and also supply

Namely, the 4 suprahyoid muscles are the;

Mylohyoid muscle Geniohyoid muscle Stylohyoid muscle Digastric muscle

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Digastric muscle


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The digastric muscle is composed of 2 parts which are separated by an intermediate tendon. The anterior belly originates from the digastric fossa of mandible, the posterior belly from the mastoid notch of tempdental bone. With Each Other they insert on the intermediate tendon.

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One specific function of the digastric is that both bellies have different embryological origins. The anterior belly derives from the first pharyngeal arch and also is therefore innervated by a branch of the mandibular nerve (mylohyoid nerve). In contrast the posterior belly arises from the 2nd pharyngeal arch, which is why its nerve supply originates from the facial nerve.

Mylohyoid muscle


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The mylohyoid muscle runs from the mylohyoid line of mandible to a median tendon, recognized as the mylohyoid raphe, wbelow both parts of the muscle fulfill. The mylohyoid raphe proceeds its course and also inserts on the body of hyoid bone. The muscle is supplied by the mylohyoid nerve from the mandibular nerve.

Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle has its beginning on the mental spine at the interior surconfront of the mandible from wright here it radiates to the body of hyoid. It is innervated by branches of the cervical plexus (C1-C2) accompanied by the hypoglossal nerve.

Stylohyoid muscle

The stylohyoid muscle extends from the styloid procedure of tempdental bone to the body of hyoid bone. In its distal component the muscle divides right into 2 tendons. The muscle is offered by the facial nerve.

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Neck viscera in situ showing digastric and mylohyoid muscles.

Function

All suprahyoid muscles contribute to the floor of the mouth however the actual muscle plate which bridges in between the two rami of mandible is created by the mylohyoid muscles (dental diaphragm).

From above the mouth floor is reinforced by the geniohyoid muscles and also from listed below by the anterior bellies of the digastric muscles. The dental diaphragm sepaprices the sublingual region from the submandibular region. The only attach between those 2 spaces is the connective tconcern on the posterior part of the mylohyoid muscles.

The suprahyoid muscles perform not just develop the floor of the mouth however play a vital function in chewing, swpermitting and also speech. In combicountry through the infrahyoid muscles, they are responsible for the placing of the hyoid bone.


In detail, the digastric and stylohyoid elevate the hyoid throughout swallowing and help keep the mouth open up. The geniohyoid moves the hyoid forward and supports the opening and lateral movement of the mandible. Even though the primary feature of the mylohyoid is to form the oral diaphragm and also elevate the floor of the mouth, it deserve to also assist in jaw opening and also chewing activities. All in all, as a result of their contribution during mastication, the suprahyoid muscles are additionally described as accessory muscles of mastication.


Clinical note

Phlegmon of the floor of the mouth (Ludwig’s angina) constitutes a rare, but dangerous complication from caries, gingivitis and tonsillitis.

Hereby, bacteria spreview within the connective tworry of the floor of the mouth and throat bring about high fever before, painful swelling and also challenges in swenabling. Through the connective tproblem of the mylohyoid muscles, the pathogens have the right to quickly move from the sublingual region to the submandibular region. The spread with the para- and also retropharyngeal spaces is especially feared as from tright here bacteria deserve to enter the skull (cranially) or the mediastinum (caudally).


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Sjust how references

References:

D. Drenckhahn/J. Waschke: Taschenbuch Anatomie, 1st edition, Urban & Fischer Verlag/Elsevier (2008), p. 185-186T. Sadler: Medizinische Embryologie, 10th edition, Thieme Verlag (2003), p. 328-329W. Graumann/D. Sasse: CompactLehrbuch Band 3 – Innere Organsysteme, Schattauer (2004), p. 25-26W. Graumann/D. Sasse: CompactLehrbuch Band also 4 – Sinnessysteme, Haut, ZNS, Periphere Leitungsbahnen, Schattauer (2005), p. 453-454U. Reineke/R. Riemann: Facharztprüfung – Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Thieme Verlag (2007), p. 55W. Remmele: Pathologie – Band 2 – Verdauungstrakt, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag (1996), p. 15

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