L> 11-1 11-1 Why is the aggregate demand curve downsloping? Specify how your explanation differs from the rationale behind the downsloping demand curve for a single product. The aggregate demand also (AD) curve mirrors that as the price level drops, purchases of real domestic output increase. The AD curve slopes downward for three reasons. The initially is the interest-price effect. We assume the supply of money to be addressed. When the price level increases, even more money is needed to make purchases and also pay for inputs. With the money supply solved, the enhanced demand for it will certainly drive up its price, the price of interest. These better rates will certainly decrease the buying of products with borrowed money, thus decreasing the amount of genuine output demanded. The second factor is the riches or actual balances result. As the price level rises, the genuine value—the purchasing power—of money and various other accumulated financial assets (bonds, for instance) will decrease. People will certainly therefore become poorer in actual terms and also decrease the quantity demanded of genuine output. The 3rd reason is the foreign purchases impact. As the United States’ price level rises loved one to other countries, Americans will certainly buy even more abroad in choice to their very own output. At the exact same time foreigners, finding Amerihave the right to items and also solutions fairly more expensive, will decrease their buying of Amerideserve to exports. Hence, via enhanced imports and decreased exports, Amerideserve to net exports decrease and so, therefore, does the amount demanded of American genuine output. These factors for the downsloping ADVERTISEMENT curve have actually nopoint to execute via the factors for the downsloping single-product demand curve. In the situation of the dropping price of a single product, the consumer with a continuous money earnings substitutes more of the now relatively cheaper product for those whose prices have actually not adjusted. Also, the consumer has become richer in real terms, because of the lower price of the one product, and deserve to buy more of it and all other products. But through the ADVERTISEMENT curve, moving down the curve means all prices are dropping—the price level is dropping. Therefore, the single-product substitution impact does not use. Also, whereas as soon as handling the demand for a solitary product the consumer’s income is assumed to be resolved, the AD curve especially excludes this assumption. Movement down the AD curve shows lower prices but, through regard to the circular circulation of economic task, it additionally indicates lower incomes. If prices are dropping, so should the receipts or revenues or incomes of the sellers. Therefore, a decrease in the price level does not necessarily indicate a rise in the nominal earnings of the economy all at once. 11-2 Explain the shape of the accumulation supply curve, accountancy for the differences in between the horizontal, intermediate, and also vertical arrays of the curve. In the horizontal array of the aggregate supply (AS) curve, the economy is in a severe recession, so that tbelow is a huge GDP gap—much excess capacity—because of deficient aggregate demand (AD). In these circumstances, ADVERTISEMENT ca boost without pulling the price level upward. In the intermediate, or upsloping, variety of the AS curve, the economic situation is plainly in the recoextremely phase of the company cycle and the price level moves up even more and also more as ADVERTISEMENT rises. The economic climate in its entirety nears the complete employment level of output, as some firms, some industries, are at or cshed sufficient to their capacity production that they believe they can—or are forced to—raise their prices to equate the quantity they supply via enhancing demand. In addition, some essential inputs are completely employed—some experienced labor, particular raw materials—and firms should bid against each other in order to rise their production. Hence, costs—and also prices—begin to rise in the economic climate, pushing up the price level as complete employment is got to. In the vertical variety of the AS curve, absolute complete capacity has actually been reached; the economic climate, by interpretation, cannot create any even more (not until, through financial development, the potential output of the economic situation has actually increased). Because the economic situation has attained its potential, any type of even more boost in AD cannot be met by an increase in output. As such, the boost in ADVERTISEMENT results only in pure demand-pull inflation. 11-3 (Optional Section Question) Exsimple carefully: "A change in the price level shifts the accumulation expenditures curve, however not the accumulation demand curve." A readjust in the price level does not transition the aggregate demand also curve. It ssuggest represents a activity along the curve, bereason tbelow is an inverse relationship in between the price level and aggregate amount demanded. However, a adjust in the price level will transition the accumulation expenditures curve, which responds to the wealth, interest-rate, and international purchases results emerging through a adjust in price level. When the price level declines, aggregate expenditures will increase, and also once the price level rises, accumulation expenditures will autumn. The aggregate expenditures design assumes a continuous price level, so it is expressed in "real" terms. Figure 11-2 graphically illustprices the partnership between the two models. 11-4 (Key Question) Suppose that accumulation demand also and supply for a theoretical economic situation are as displayed on height of following page: Amount of real domestic output demanded, billions Price level (price index) Amount of genuine domestic output offered, billions $100 200 300 400 500 300 250 200 150 150 $400 400 300 200 100 a. Use these sets of information to graph the aggregate demand and also supply curves. What will certainly be the equilibrium price level and level of real residential output in this theoretical economy? Is the equilibrium genuine output additionally the absolute full-capacity real output? Explain. b. Why will certainly a price level of 150 not be an equilibrium price level in this economy? Why not 250? c. Suppose that buyers desire to purchase $200 billion of additional genuine domestic output at each price level. What determinants might cause this readjust in aggregate demand? What is the new equilibrium price level and also level of actual output? Over which selection of the accumulation supply curve—horizontal, intermediate, or vertical—has equilibrium changed? (a) See the graph. Equilibrium price level = 200. Equilibrium genuine output = $300 billion. No, the full-capacity level of GDP is $400 billion, wright here the AS curve becomes vertical (b) At a price level of 150, actual GDP gave is a maximum of $200 billion, less than the actual GDP demanded of $400 billion. The shortage of genuine output will drive the price level up. At a price level of 250, genuine GDP gave is $400 billion, which is more than the actual GDP demanded of $200 billion. The excess of real output will certainly drive dvery own the price level. Equilibrium occurs at the price level at which AS and AD intersect. See the graph. Increases in consumer, investment, federal government, or net export spfinishing can transition the ADVERTISEMENT curve rightward. New equilibrium price level = 250. New equilibrium GDP = $400 billion. The intermediate range. 11-5 (Key Question) Suppose that the theoretical economy in question 4 had actually the complying with relationship between its actual residential output and also the input quantities necessary for producing that level of output: a. What is the level of efficiency in this economy? b. What is the per unit price of manufacturing if the price of each input is $2? c. Assume that the input price increases from $2 to $3 through no accompanying change in efficiency. What is the new per unit cost of production? In what direction did the $1 increase in input price push the accumulation supply curve? What effect would this transition in aggregate supply have actually upon the price level and the level of real output? d. Suppose that the boost in input price had not occurred however rather that productivity had actually increased by 100 percent. What would be the new per unit expense of production? What effect would certainly this adjust in per unit manufacturing price have actually on the aggregate supply curve? What effect would certainly this shift in aggregate supply have actually on the price level and also the level of genuine output? Input amount Real domestic output 150.0 112.5 75.0 400 300 200 (a) The AS curve would change leftward. The price levelwould increase and actual output would certainly decrease. (d) AS curve shifts to the right; price level declines and also genuine output increases. 11-6 Will an increase in the UNITED STATE price level loved one to price levels in other nations shift the UNITED STATE aggregate demand also curve? If so, in what direction? Explain. Will a decrease in the dollar price of foreign currencies change the UNITED STATE accumulation supply curve rightward or simply relocate the economy alengthy an existing accumulation supply curve? Exsimple. An increase in the American price level does not shift the American ADVERTISEMENT curve. What does take place is that because of the foreign purchases impact, tright here will be a decrease in American net exports and also, in turn, motion up alengthy the Amerideserve to AD curve, leading to a decline in the aggregate amount demanded of Amerideserve to genuine output. A decrease in the dollar price of international currencies will certainly decrease the price of imported inputs, thereby decreasing the per unit cost of producing Amerideserve to genuine output. This will certainly shift the Amerihave the right to AS curve to the right (and not simply move the economic situation along an existing AS curve). 11-7 (Key Question) What impacts would certainly each of the following have actually on accumulation demand or accumulation supply? In each case usage a diagram to display the supposed impacts on the equilibrium price level and also level of genuine output. Assume all various other things remajor continuous. a. A widespcheck out are afraid of depression on the component of consumers b. A huge purchase of wheat by Russia c. A $1 boost in the excise tax on cigarettes d. A reduction in interemainder prices at each price level e. A cut in Federal spfinishing for wellness treatment f. The expectation of a quick increase in the price level g. The finish fragmentation of OPEC, bring about oil prices to autumn by one-half h. A 10 percent reduction in individual earnings taxation prices i. An rise in labor productivity j. A 12 percent increase in nominal wperiods k. Depreciation in the global worth of the dollar l. A sharp decline in the national incomes of our western European trading partners m. A decrease in the percent of the Amerideserve to labor force which is unionized (a) AD curve left (b) AD curve ideal (c) AS curve left (d) ADVERTISEMENT curve right (e) ADVERTISEMENT curve left (f) ADVERTISEMENT curve appropriate (g) AS curve right (h) ADVERTISEMENT curve ideal (i) AS curve best (j) AS curve left (k) ADVERTISEMENT curve right; AS curve left (l) AD curve left (m) AS curve best. 11-8 What is the partnership between the production possibilities curve discussed in Chapter 2 and the accumulation supply curve debated in this chapter? A offered AS curve mirrors just how a lot will be created at each and every price level as much as the full employment output level. Beyond this allude, the economic situation at present does not have actually the resources and modern technology to develop more. A movement to the right of the AS curve is lugged about, in impact, by the same factors that reason a production possibilities curve to transition to the right. 11-9 (Key Question) Other things being equal, what result will each of the following have actually on the equilibrium price level and also level of real output: a. An boost in aggregate demand in the vertical array of aggregate supply b. An rise in accumulation supply (assume prices and also wperiods are flexible) d. An equal boost in both aggregate demand and accumulation supply d. A reduction in accumulation demand also in the horizontal range of accumulation supply e. An increase in accumulation demand also and a decrease in accumulation supply f. A decrease in accumulation demand in the intermediate array of accumulation supply (assume prices and wages are inversatile downward) (a) Price level rises and no readjust in actual output (b) Price level drops and also real output boosts (c) Price level does not readjust, but genuine output rises (d) Price level does not change, yet genuine output declines (e) Price level rises, yet the readjust in genuine output is indeterminate (f) Price level does not change, but actual output declines 11-10 (Optional Section Question) Suppose that the price level is continuous and also investment spending increases sharply. How would you present this rise in the aggregate expenditures model? What would certainly be the outcome? How would you display this rise in investment in the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model? What range of the aggregate supply curve is involved? An boost in investment spending represents a rise in aggregate expenditures and also an upward change in the accumulation expenditures curve. The outcome would be a new, greater equilibrium output level. This rise in output would be equal to a multiple of the initial change in investment spfinishing based upon the multiplier effect. The multiplier is 1/MPS in this model. Due to the fact that we are assuming the price level is constant with boosted accumulation demand also, the change in aggregate demand occurs in the horizontal variety of the accumulation supply curve. It would certainly be a rightward transition of aggregate demand also, and the brand-new equilibrium output would autumn to the appropriate of the original equilibrium by the complete degree of the transition in accumulation demand also. 11-11 (Optional Section Question) Exordinary just how an upsloping aggregate supply curve might threaten the multiplier. An upward sloping accumulation supply curve weakens the impact of the multiplier bereason any boost in accumulation demand will have both a price and an output result. For instance, if accumulation demand grows by $110 million, this might reexisting an increase of $100 million in actual output and also $10 million in better prices if the inflation price averperiods 10 percent. The multiplier is weakened bereason some of the boost in aggregate demand also is soaked up by the higher prices and actual output does not change by the complete level of the change in aggregate demand. In the accompanying diagram assume that the accumulation demand also curve shifts from AD1 in year 1 to AD2 in year 2, only to loss back to AD1 in year 3. Locate the brand-new year 3 equilibrium place on the assumption that prices and weras are (a) completely versatile and also (b) entirely rigid downward. Which of the 2 equilibrium positions is more desirable? Which is more realistic? Exordinary why the price level might be ratcheted upward once accumulation demand also rises. Be sure to refer to both effectiveness wperiods and food selection expenses in your answer. (a) With prices and wages completely flexible, the year 3 price and also output equilibrium is the same to the year 1 equilibrium at e1, through price aobtain at P1. (b) With prices and wperiods entirely rigid, the year 3 price remains at the greater year 2 price of P2 and also output is much less than in either year 1 or 2. The year 3 equilibrium place is at e2. e1 is far more desirable bereason of greater output and also less inflation. e2 is even more realistic and denotes the stagflation of the at an early stage 1980s. When AD rises, product prices, resource prices and also per unit manufacturing prices relocate upward easily, they carry out not so easily come down. Tright here are a number of reasons for the inversatility of wperiods and also prices in the downward direction. Wage contracts might proccasion wage cuts for the duration of the contract. Some employers might not wish to cut weras because they fear a drop in morale and also worker performance. Current wages may be "performance wages" which elicit maximum work-related initiative and also hence minimize labor cost per unit of output. Employers might have actually invested in worker training and fear loss of valuable employees if wperiods are reduced. Minimum wage laws additionally contribute to the downward inversatility of wperiods. Product prices might not fall as an outcome of diminished demand also bereason of "food selection costs"—the prices of changing prices. Finally, cutting product price might set off an unwanted price battle. 11-13 "Unemployment have the right to be resulted in by a leftward change of accumulation demand or a leftward transition of aggregate supply." Do you agree? Exsimple. In each situation specify price-level results. Assuming the economic climate was not operating in the vertical range of the AS curve, the statement is true. In either case, the brand-new point of interarea is to the left of the previous position, denoting a decrease in actual domestic output and, therefore, assuming no readjust in efficiency, necessarily a boost in joblessness. However, assuming finish flexibility of prices and wperiods, the decrease in ADVERTISEMENT will certainly bring about a lower price level, whereas the decrease in AS will lead to a greater price level. From the point of see of price stcapacity, therefore, the decrease in ADVERTISEMENT is preferable. If the economy were in the horizontal variety initially, tbelow would certainly be no price changes in either case. 11-14 (Last Word) What are the alternative views on why joblessness in Europe has freshly been so high? Discuss the policy ramifications of each check out. Tright here are two views on this question. One is that tbelow is a high natural price of joblessness in each of the European countries in question. This watch holds that tbelow are high levels of frictional and also structural unemployment which acagency the full-employment level of output. Any increase in accumulation demand would certainly reason demand-pull inflation. The sources of the high frictional and also structural joblessness are federal government policies and also union contracts, which rise the costs of hiring and also reduce the costs of not having actually a project. For example, tright here are high minimum wages; generous welfare benefits; restrictions against firing, which discourage firms from employing workers; thirty to forty days of paid vacation per year; high worker absenteeism, which reduces productivity; and high employer expenses of health, pension, discapability, and various other benefits. The second explacountry disagrees through the initially and also sees the major trouble as being deficient accumulation demand also. Those financial experts that host this watch suggest to federal government policies that are aimed at staying clear of inflation and also not at increasing aggregate demand also.


You are watching: Which of the following describe why wages are inflexible downward


See more: Why Is Romeo And Juliet So Popular As A Symbol Of Love, What Makes Romeo And Juliet So Famous

In this see, the European economies are operating in the horizontal selection of their aggregate supply curves and also, increases in aggregate demand also would not be inflationary but would, instead, boost output and employment.