Amur River, additionally well-known as Heilong Jiang, is a significant watermethod in East Asia and the world’s 10th longest river. It is China’s third-longest river after Yangtze and also Huang Ho and also the longest river flowing with Russian Far East. The river begins at the confluence of Argun and Onon-Shilka near Pokrovka in Russia, then flows eastern and southeastern for around 2,824 kilometers before emptying right into the Strait of Tartary. However, the Amur-Argun river mechanism is 4,444 kilometers long, making it Asia’s fourth longest river. Amur creates component of the border in between Northeastern China and also Southeast Siberia. The river’s modern name (Heilengthy Jiang) converts to Babsence Dragon River.

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Features Of The Amur River

Cliff Aury on the Amur River in the Khabarovsk area of the Russian Far East.  The Amur waterburned covers a space of about 1.855 million square kilometers and drains much of the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. Its headwaters rise in Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area (Mongolia), Greater Khingan in Russia, and Northeastern China. The Amur appropriate flows for around 2,824 kilometers and drains right into the Strait of Tartary close to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. It discharges an average of 10,739 cubic meters of water per second into the strait and a maximum of 30,700 cubic meters per second.

The Amur is separated into three sections; Upper Amur, Center Amur, and Lower Amur. The Upper Amur starts at the confluence of Argun and also Shilka and flows for about 900 kilometers to Zeya’s mouth. The Center Amur runs for 970 kilometers from Zeya to Khabarovsk, while the Lower Amur flows from Khabarovsk to the Strait of Tartary for another 970 kilometers. The whole river rises at an elevation of 303 meters and falls to sea level at the mouth.

Course Of The Amur River

Sunset on the embankment of the Amur river in Khabarovsk. Editorial credit: Dmitrii Rud /


The Amur River begins its circulation at the confluence of the Argun and also Shilka River, about 2,824 kilometers northwest of its mouth. The Shilka River starts in Siberia at the junction of Onon and Ingoda Rivers, whose resources are in the Khentii Range. Shilka flows for about 560 kilometers prior to meeting the Argun River at the Russia-China border. The Argun River rises in the Greater Xing’an Range in Inner Mongolia, China, roughly 1,620 kilometers from its junction with the Shilka River. It receives several tributaries before getting to the China-Russia border, including Gazimur, Uryumkan, and also Urov. The Argun runs on the Russia-China border and meets the Shilki near Pokrovka.

Upper Amur

The Shilka and Argun Rivers confluence at an elevation of 303 meters and also marks the beginning of the Amur River. The Upper Amur flows east on the Russia-China border, then gently bends southeastwards, preserving its circulation on the border for about 400 kilometers. The river’s top reaches circulation in between Amarzar Range and the Greater Khingan Range and also previous several towns, receiving water from several tributaries. The Huma He River joins the Upper Amur at Huma. Then, the river proceeds southwards, flowing between Heihe (China) and also Blagoveshchensk (Russia). The river widens as it flows southern and also receives Zeya near Blagoveshchensk. Zeya currently contributes 16% of inflow into the Amur, dvery own from 50% bereason of the circulation regulations.

Aerial see of Amur River.

Middle Amur

The Amur-Zeya junction marks the beginning of the Middle Amur River. This section initially flows into the Zeya-Bureya Depression and curves eastern, then southeastern as the river viewpoints its confluence through the Bureya River. The river proceeds south for another 250 kilometers without receiving any kind of significant tributary, flowing past the spurs that extfinish from the Bureya Range. Then, it enters a narrow gorge and also flows through Xiao Hinngan Range, wright here its rate and depth rise swiftly. The Middle Amur briefly transforms eastern and receives Songhua (biggest tributary) at Tongjiang, then turns northeastern and flows towards Khabarovsk, wbelow it receives the Ussuri River.

Lower Amur

At Khabarovsk, the Amur River is just 370 kilometers northeast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). However before, Sikhote-Alin Range diverts the river so that it does not empty into the East Sea straight. Instead, the Amur flows for one more 970 kilometers prior to draining into the sea using the Strait of Tartary. The Lower Amur leaves the Russia-China border and proceeds northeastern from Khabarovsk. The river’s lower reaches flow via a broad valley, past Amursk and Komsomolsk-na-Amure. The river plain narrows near Komsomolsk-on-Amur and flows for around 145 kilometers with a scenic woodland valley. Then it flows via the Udil Kizinsky hollow till Bogorodskoye. It emerges from the hollow and also flows on a low-lying simple, wbelow it receives the Amgun, the last major tributary. Then, the Lower Amur turns eastern and enters the strait via the 20-km-long estuary.


The climate of the Amur basin is affected by the seasonally alternating monquickly winds and its north place. The continental air mass dominates the river basin in the time of polar winter, resulting in dry weather and a temperature array of -20 to -33 degrees Celsius. During summer, the river basin receives maritime air mass, resulting in the temperature to selection between 18 and also 22 levels Celsius. The Amur basin receives unalso precipitation. The southerly portion receives up to 900 mm each year, while the middle area receives a maximum of 600 mm. The western part receives the lowest precipitation, varying in between 300 and also 400 mm.

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Flora And Fauna Of The Amur River

Young kaluga fish (Amur river endemic ). The Amur Basin’s vegetation lies mostly in the Taiga zone, via larch as the a lot of prevalent species in the area. The drier parts contain fir, spruce, and also pine, while the eastern portions have actually Amur cork tree and also Oriental pine. Steppe grassland also dominates the west, via conifer and combined broad-leaved woodlands are found on the south. The river itself consists of over 123 fish species, consisting of 25 species of commercial worth. Most fish species, about 100, are uncovered in the Lower Amur. This river is house to some 20 native broadhead and also carp species. Other species include Siberian Salmon, burbot, and the sig, via Kaluga as the biggest species.

Quick History

The Amur basin was initially inhabited by a number of people, including Nanai, Buryat, Nivkh, Yakut, Orok, Udegey, and also a number of Machu human being. For the majority of of these tribes, the major occupation was fishing and also searching. The Machu world regarded the river as sacred and also called it “sahaliyan ula,” interpretation “Babsence River.” Russian traders and also explorers started emerging an interemainder in the area in the 17th century. Russian explorer Vasily Poyarkov explored the basin and also the estuary between 1644 and 1647, adhered to by Yerofey Khabarov from 1649 to 1651.

The Treaty of Nerchinsk alsituated the entire river basin to China in 1689. In spite of the treaty, Russians and Europeans continued to occupy north Amur. By 1860, Russia had taken manage of the land also to Ussuri’s eastern and also Amur’s north. Russian inhabitants moved into the area and developed cities like Blagoveshchensk. Russians progressively spread over the basin, with their influence reaching Harbin and also Dalian. The Amur River remains an essential symbol in Russian-Chinese connections, with the river coming to be famous during the Sino-Soviet anxiety of 1956-66.