The accounting is extremely various for sellers than for buyers. Remember, under the perpetual inventory technique, we supplied a combination of 3 accounts (Cash, Inventory and also Accounts Payable) on the buyer side. This is not the instance for the seller. The seller will use the complying with accounts:

NameAccount TypeIncreasesDecreases
CashCurrent assetDebitCredit
Accounts ReceivableCurrent assetDebitCredit
Merchandise InventoryCurrent assetDebitCredit
Sales RevenueRevenueCreditDebit
Sales Discounts*RevenueDebitCredit
Sales Returns and Allowances*RevenueDebitCredit
Cost of Goods SoldExpenseDebitCredit
Deliincredibly ExpenseExpenseDebitCredit

*Sales discounts and sales retransforms and also allowances are contra-accounts. Notice how they rise with a debit and also decrease with a crmodify even though they are revenue accounts.

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Cost of items sold

Cost of items marketed is precisely what the account name reads: it is the cost of the goods merchandise inventory) to the seller that is currently being marketed to customers. Cost of products offered is not the price charged to customers but what a agency phelp for the goods they are now marketing.  Cost of Goods Sold is an EXPENSE item. Even though we perform not check out the word Expense this in fact is an price item discovered on the Income Statement as a reduction to Revenue. Watch this video on seller entries before we look at them in more detail.

 Recording Sales

Sales are videotaped in a Sales Revenue (or Sales) account and also is the price we charge to the customers. Sales have the right to be cash or have crmodify terms (on account) making use of Accounts Receivable given that we will certainly get money from the customer in the future. To document sales, we will delittle Cash or Accounts Receivable, depending upon payment, and also credit Sales Revenue.

But, we have to also enhance the revenue and also expenses incurred (remember the matching principle?) and also we will record the cost expense of products marketed. Remember, price of goods marketed is the seller’s price for the items they are now selling to a customer and is NOT the marketing price. We begin discovering this concept by having actually expense of goods marketed amounts provided but in a later on area, you will learn to calculate the amount yourself. We will certainly delittle bit the price Cost of Goods Sold but what was it we were selling? Right! Merchandise or merchandise inventory so we will certainly mitigate (credit) merchandise inventory given that we no longer have actually the goods.

To illustrate the perpetual inventory strategy journal entries, assume that Smith Company made 2 sales of merchandise to Hanlon Food Store:

On May 4, Smith sold $30,000 of merchandise via crmodify regards to 2/10, n30 and also shipping terms FOB Destination. The original cost to Smith was $18,000.on May 21, Smith sold $20,000 of merchandise for cash with shipping terms FOB Shipping Point. The original price to Smith was $15,000.

The journal entries to record the sale and also cost of products marketed for each day would certainly be:

May 4Accounts Receivable 30,000
Sales Revenue 30,000
To document sale of merchandise on credit
May 4Cost of items sold 18,000
Merchandise Inventory 18,000
To document expense of merchandise offered to customers.
May 21Cash 20,000
Sales Revenue20,000
To record sale of merchandise for cash.
May 21Cost of goods sold 15,000
Merchandise Inventory 15,000
To document cost of merchandise marketed to customers.  

Notice how each transactivity has 2 entries. One to record the sale to the customer and one to record the intake of inventory as a cost of products offered.

Shipping on Sales

We learned shipping terms tells you who is responsible for paying for shipping. FOB Desticountry suggests the seller is responsible for paying shipping and the buyer would certainly not must pay or record anything for shipping. FOB Shipping Point means the buyer is responsible for shipping and also have to pay and document for shipping. As the seller, we will document any type of shipping prices in the Deliexceptionally Expense account as a debit. We will crmodify cash or accounts payable, depending upon if we paid it or not.

In our 2 transactions above, the May 4 sale has shipping regards to FOB Destination so the seller would pay for shipping. In the May 21 sale, the shipping terms FOB Shipping Point implies the buyer is responsible and also the seller will certainly not document anypoint for shipping.

Smith Company paid $100 cash on May 4 for shipping on the May 4 sale to Hanlon Food Store. The journal entry to document this transaction would be:

May 4Deliextremely Expense100
To document shipping costs for sales.  

Sales Returns and also Allowances

Merchandising carriers generally allow customers to return items that are defective or unsatismanufacturing facility for a selection of reasons, such as wrong shade, wrong size, wrong style, wrong quantities, or inferior top quality. A sales return is merchandise changed by a buyer. A sales allowance is a deduction from the original invoiced sales price granted once the customer keeps the merchandise yet is dissatisfied for any of a number of factors, including inferior top quality, damage, or degradation in transit.

When a seller agrees to the sales rerevolve or sales allowance, the seller sends out the buyer a crmodify memorandum indicating a reduction (crediting) of the buyer’s account receivable. A crmodify memorandum becomes the basis for recording a sales rerotate or a sales allowance.

In theory, sellers could document both sales retransforms and also sales allowances as debits to the Sales account bereason they cancel part of the taped selling price. However, because the amount of sales returns and also sales allowances is useful indevelopment to management, it have to be displayed individually. The amount of returns and allowances in relation to goods offered can indicate the top quality of the items (high-return percentage, equates to low quality) or of pressure applied by salespersons (high-rerevolve portion, equals high-pressure sales).

Sellers record sales retransforms and also sales allowances in a separate Sales Returns and also Allowances account. The Sales Returns and Allowances account is a contra revenue account (to Sales) that documents the selling price of merchandise returned by buyers or reductions in marketing prices granted.

The bookkeeping approach will certainly be different for a sales rerotate and also an allowance. In a sales allowance, the customer is not returning any merchandise and we will certainly only change the customer side of the transactions (sales and accounts receivable). In a sales rerotate, the customer is actually returning merchandise. We will need to alleviate the customer side (sales and accounts receivable) and increase the inventory side (inventory and price of products sold). The inventory is returned to the seller which means we have to add it earlier to inventory and rerelocate the price since it is no much longer marketed.

Following are 2 examples portraying the recording of sales retransforms in the Sales Returns and Allowances account:

Assume that a company grants a $ 400 allowance to a customer for damage resulting from improperly packed merchandise. If the customer has actually not yet paid the account, the compelled entry would certainly be:
Sales Retransforms and also Allowances400
Accounts Receivable400
To document sales allowance granted to a customer.  

If the customer has currently paid the account, the credit is to Cash rather of Accounts Receivable. If the customer took a 2% discount as soon as paying the account, the refund entry would be:

Sales Returns and Allowances400
Sales Discounts (400 x 2%)8
Cash (400 – 8)392
To record sales allowance refund to customer much less discount.  
Assume instead that a customer returns $300 of goods offered on account. The products price the seller $200. Remember, a return needs 2 entries — one for the sales side and also one for the inventory side.  If payment has actually not yet been got, the forced entry is:
AccountDebit Credit
Sales Retransforms and Allowances300
Accounts Receivable300
To document customer return on crmodify sale.  
Merchandise Inventory200
Cost of goods sold200
To document receipt of changed merchandise.  

If the customer has currently phelp the account, the credit is to Cash instead of Accounts Receivable. If the customer took a 2% discount when paying the account, the remoney enattempt would certainly be (note: there would certainly be no adjust to the inventory entry):

AccountDelittle bit  Crmodify
Sales Retransforms and also Allowances300
Sales Discounts (400 x 2%)6
Accounts Receivable294
To record customer remoney through 2% discount.  
Merchandise Inventory200
Cost of goods sold200
To record receipt of went back merchandise.  

 Receiving Payment from Customers

Remember, the crmodify terms (or terms) provides indevelopment to the buyer about when the invoice is due and if tbelow is a discount enabled for paying the invoice at an early stage. The discount is not recorded until payment is obtained bereason the seller does not recognize if a buyer will certainly take the discount or not. Discounts are videotaped in a contra-revenue account dubbed Sales Discounts. Receiving payment will certainly affect the customer side only and not inventory. We will certainly be reducing the amount owed by the customer (accounts receivable) and increasing sales discounts (if any) and also cash.

For instance, Smith Company kind of receives payment of the May 4 invoice from Hanlon Food Store on May 10. The customer took the 2% discount. The enattempt to record this transactivity would certainly be:

May 10Sales Discounts (30,000 x 2%)600
Cash (30,000 – 600)29,400
Accounts Receivable30,000
To record customer payment through 2% discount.  

If Hanlon had actually went back merchandise for $300 before paying the invoice, the enattempt to record this transaction through a 2% discount would be:

Sales Discounts (29,700 x 2%)594
Cash (29,700 – 594)29,106
Accounts Receivable29,700
To document customer payment through 2% discount and also return.  

Note: This entry is the exact same through a sales return or a sales allowance.

If Hanlon had actually a $400 allowance yet paid the invoice after the discount period on May 30, the entry to document the transactivity (less the allowance) would be:

May 30Cash (30,000 – 400)29,600
Accounts Receivable (30,000 – 400)29,600
To document customer payment less allowance and also no discount.  


Cost of goods sold is not the price charged to customers yet what a company paid for the items they are now selling. Cost of Goods Sold is an EXPENSE item. Sales Discounts and Sales Returns and also Allowances are contra-revenue accounts meaning they are REVENUE accounts but debits will certainly increase and also credits will certainly decrease.

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Sales revenue and also sales rerevolve entries need 2 entries: one for the customer side (accounts receivable and sales) and one for the inventory side (price of goods marketed and inventory). Sales allowances call for just the customer side.