Contrasting student and scientific views

Student everyday experiences

Younger primary students may have actually bit understanding about internal bodily organs. They tfinish to think the contents of the body are what they have actually viewed being put right into or coming out of it, such as food and blood. Their experiences with day-to-day cuts, scratches and bruises seem to reinforce a see that blood is below the surconfront of the skin, filling the spaces inside the body (like a bag of blood).

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Older youngsters are more most likely to have the ability to list a big number of organs however may not fully understand the function or interlinked nature of these. For example, students at these levels might realise that the heart is a pump but not realise that the blood retransforms to the heart, or they might think that the brain helps the body parts yet not always realise that the body helps the brain.

Research: Fleer & Hardy (1996), Gellert (1962), Carey (1985)

Scientific view

To survive and redevelop, the humale body relies on major interior body organs to perform certain important attributes. When 2 or even more organs in addition to their linked frameworks job-related together they come to be component components of a body system.

Several of the easily recognisable inner organs and also their connected features are:

The brain

The brain is the regulate centre of the nervous system and also is situated within the skull. Its features include muscle manage and also coordicountry, sensory reception and also integration, speech manufacturing, memory storage, and also the elaboration of thought and also eactivity.

The lungs

The lungs are 2 sponge-choose, cone-shaped frameworks that fill many of the chest cavity. Their essential attribute is to carry out oxygen from inhaled air to the bloodstream and to exhale carbon dioxide.

The liver

The liver lies on the best side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. Its main function is to process the contents of the blood to ensure complace stays the exact same. This process involves breaking dvery own fats, producing urea, filtering harmful substances and keeping a proper level of glucose in the blood.

The bladder

The bladder is a muscular body organ located in the cavity. It stretches to keep urine and contracts to release urine.

The kidneys

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spinal column. Their attribute is to maintain the body’s chemical balance by excreting waste products and excess fluid in the create of urine.

The heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular body organ that pumps blood via the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions.

The stomach

The stomach is a muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag, lying crosswise in the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. Its major objective is digestion of food via production of gastric juices which break dvery own, mix and churn the food right into a thin liquid.

The intestines

The intestines are located between the stomach and also the anus and also are divided into 2 significant sections: the small intestine and also the huge intestine. The attribute of the tiny intestine is to absorb many ingested food. The big intestine is responsible for absorption of water and excretion of solid waste product.

Critical teaching ideas

Humans may look different yet inside they share the same component components.The human body has major inner organs or body parts which can be easily identified. These organs differ in size, form, place and also function.Each organ has a details function which contributes to the overall wellbeing of the human body.A team of organs whose work are closely connected are regularly described as a mechanism.

Explore the relationships between ideas about interior body organs in the Concept Advancement Maps (Cell Functions).

Building students’ expertise of interior body organs, just how these are attached and why they work together as systems is a complicated process. A beneficial starting point is to recognize students’ existing concepts and understandings about what is inside the body. Using everyday experiences to attract out these ideas is always powerful, such as recalling visits to the physician, clinical operations/actions, injuries, clinical imaging/scans, posters and also proclaiming images.

It is useful to discover what internal organs look choose and where they are located in order to understand the specific function of each and how each contributes to keeping the body alive and also well. Teaching experiences need to begin to encourage students to consider just how organs occupational together, i.e. how the occupational of one body organ is equivalent or contributes to the functioning of an additional. This idea leads to the more complex concept that body parts form connected systems that add to the functioning of the body in its entirety.

Teaching activities

Bring out students’ existing ideas

Encourage students to job-related in small teams to create a prevalent illustration of what they understand about the inside of the humale body. Consider offering each team through an outline of a human body or have students trace roughly a group member lying on a big sheet of paper. Ensure students take into consideration the location, dimension and shape of body components in their drawings. Have students include labels naming each internal component and take into consideration obtaining the groups to study indevelopment around each body organ.

Share intellectual control

Provide each student group with at least 3 strips of paper. Have each team list 3 inquiries that occurred as they were completing their drawings, focusing on things they realised they didn’t understand.

Display body illustrations and also comment on similarities and also differences between each group’s representations. Display the questions and include further questions to the list as they aclimb from these discussions and also monitorings. As a course, finish a bundling task sorting the inquiries. Students must comment on what groupings to usage.

These questions have the right to then increate planning of even more investigations. Revisit these concerns at the end of each session and respond wright here appropriate via new indevelopment.

Clarify and also consoliday concepts for/by interaction to others

By using a jigobserved strategy, students move from ‘home’ groups to ‘expert’ teams, and then back to ‘home’ teams to collect and share more detailed information about interior body organs. Working in ‘expert’ groups, students research study a specific inner body organ of the humale body. As an outcome of the experiences provided in this ‘expert’ group, each team member have to be able to explain where the organ is located, describe/represent the observable attributes of the body organ and describe what the body organ does for the huguy body and also why it is necessary.

When functioning in experienced groups it may be beneficial for students to:

access advantageous websites, scientific research messages and also visual imagesdiscover clinical modelsexamine pet organs (following regulated health protocols)construct simple models via materials like plasticinecomplete easy investigations which show key attributes and functions of the body organ they are investigating.

Each member then returns to the ‘home’ group and also shares their specialization, ‘teaching’ their colleagues this brand-new information. Following expert presentations the ‘home’ team retransforms to their original body illustration and also adds brand-new information. These changing body displays come to be an integral component of the ongoing investigation and also demonstrate a dynamic, changing display screen.

Promote reflection on and clarification of existing ideas

To aid students to construct richer individual meanings for principles and also principles pertained to inner body organs encourage them to complete sentence stems. Sentence stems are infinish statements designed to provide a framework for insights and also monitorings. Some examples are: ‘The liver is…’ ‘The liver can…’ ‘A heart has…’ ‘The lungs can…’

Encourage students to compose brief stories around one of the organs they have actually investigated, with a focus of ‘a day in the life’ of that organ.

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Challenge some existing principles and also emphasis attention on hitherto overlooked detail

When students are familiar through a variety of significant internal organs, administer tasks that encourage students to consider how one organ is similar to or contributes to the job-related of another body organ. Ask students inquiries such as, ‘How is this like/not favor a comparable organ?’ This urges students to take into consideration similarities and differences which they may usually overlook. Other questions could include:

How are the stomach and also bladder alike? How do they differ?How are the kidneys and also the liver alike? How execute they differ?How is the huge intestine choose a tea strainer?How is the heart not like a bike pump yet even more favor an air mattress foot pump?

Identify diseases and also conditions generally linked through each major organ, such as heart attack, asthma, stomach ulcer, and so on. Discuss contributing components to these, such as inherited conditions. Explore exactly how medicine has occurred reliable treatments for many type of of these, for instance transplants, mechanical hearts and also medication.​

Additional resources

Science connected interactive learning objects deserve to be uncovered on the FUSE Teacher Reresources page.

To access the interenergetic finding out object below, teachers should login to FUSE and also search by Learning Resource ID:

Human Body – students work with a series of 4 learning objects about the framework and also attribute of the huguy body. They compare people via various other animals to discover adaptation to atmospheres.Learning Resource ID: K6MKAS