Basics of a Computer Network:

What is a Computer Network? How Does it work? What deserve to it carry out for you? Some standard explanations of each component are discovered in this post.

You are watching: The unique identification number assigned to your computer

Computer networking is composed of incredibly straightforward methodologies including the following:

Open system:A mechanism which is associated to the network-related and also is ready for communication.

Closed system:A system which is not linked to the netjob-related and also can’t be communicated through.

Computer Network:It is the interlink of multiple tools, mostly termed as Hosts associated utilizing multiple routes for the objective of sending/receiving information or media.There are additionally multiple gadgets or mediums which helps in the interaction between two various gadgets which are recognized as Network-related devices. Computer Network-related Ex: Rexternal, Switch, Hub, Bridge.


The layout pattern using which devices are interconnected is referred to as as netjob-related topology. Such as Bus, Star, Mesh, Ring, Daisy chain.


OSI:OSI stands for Open Equipment Interconnection. It is a referral design that states criteria for communications protocols and likewise the functionalities of each layer.

Protocol:A protocol is the set of rules or algorithms which specify the way exactly how two entities deserve to communicate throughout the netjob-related and also tbelow exists different protocol defined at each layer of the OSI model. Couple of of such protocols are TCP, IP, UDP, ARP, DHCP, FTP and so on.


Host name:Each gadget in the network-related is associated with a unique gadget name well-known as Hostname.Type “hostname” in the command also prompt and push ‘Enter’, this screens the hostname of your machine.


IP Address (Internet Protocol address):Also, known as the Logical Address, is the netoccupational deal with of the system across the network-related.To determine each device in the world-wide-internet, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) asindications IPV4 (Version 4) address as a distinctive identifier for each gadget on the Web.Length of the IP deal with is 32-bits. (Hence we have 232 IP addresses available.)Type “ipconfig” in the command also prompt and push ‘Enter’, this gives us the IP deal with of the tool.

MAC Address (Media Access Control address):Also well-known as physical resolve, is the unique identifier of each hold and is associated via the NIC (Network-related Interchallenge Card).MAC deal with is assigned to the NIC at the moment of manufacturing.Length of the MAC deal with is : 12-nibble/ 6 bytes/ 48 bitsType “ipconfig/all” in the command prompt and also push ‘Enter’, this gives us the MAC deal with.

Port:Port have the right to be referred as a logical channel through which data deserve to be sent/obtained to an application. Any hold might have multiple applications running, and also each of this application is identified using the port number on which they are running.Port number is a 16-little integer, therefore we have 216 ports accessible which are categorized as displayed below:


Number of ports: 65,536Range: 0 – 65535Type “netstat -a” in the command also prompt and press ‘Enter’, this lists all the ports being supplied.


Socket:The distinct combicountry of IP attend to and also Port number together are termed as Socket.

Few more conceptsDNS Server:DNS stands for Doprimary Name system.DNS is basically a server which translates web addresses or URL (ex: www.google.com) right into their matching IP addresses. We don’t have to remember all the IP addresses of each and every website.The command also ‘nslookup’ provides you the IP deal with of the doprimary you are trying to find. This also offers the information of our DNS Server.


ARP:ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol.It is provided to transform the IP deal with to its matching Physical Address(i.e.MAC Address).ARP is used by the Data Link Layer to recognize the MAC address of the Receiver’s machine.

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RARP:RARP stands for Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.As the name says, it provides the IP attend to of the gadget offered a physical attend to as input. But RARP has actually end up being obsolete given that the moment DHCP has come right into the image.

For more indevelopment read this great article gave by IBM – Networking A Complete Guide