A

abscess - a localized repertoire of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.

You are watching: The term is used to describe any redness of the skin due to dilated capillaries.

achalasia - failure to relax; specifically referring to smooth muscle fibers at any type of junction of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. openings such as the pylorus, cardia or other sphincter muscles); specifically faiattract of the esophageal sphincter to relax via swallowing.acinus (acini = pl.) - a small sac-prefer dilatation, e.g. in the lung the standard unit of gas exchange, each acinus is provided by a single terminal bronchiole; in the liver, the smallest useful unit.acute - a disease through sudden onset of indicators and a short course.adenocarcinoma - a malignant tumour originating in glandular tissue.adenoma - a benign tumor comprised of glandular elements.adenosis - a condition of a gland also, often marked by the abnormal formation or enlargement of glandular tissue.adhesion - in close proximity; joining of components to one another which may take place abcommonly as in a fibrous band also of svehicle tworry that binds together commonly separate anatomical frameworks.adnexal - appendages or accessory structures of an body organ, e.g. of the uterus, including the uterine tubes and also ligaments and ovaries.afferent - towards the centre, e.g. afferent nerves carry impulses toward the main nervous system.agenesis - absence or faientice of formation of any kind of part or organ.agglutination - clumping together of cells or particles.aggregation - a full or coming together of sepaprice components.akinesia (akinetic = adj.) - absence or loss of activity.amenorrhea - the absence of menstrual bleeding.amino acid(s) - the fundamental structure block of protein; tbelow are 20 prevalent amino acid kinds and also their sequence will certainly determine the properties and attribute of each protein.amine - a chemical substance in the body whose framework is comparable to ammonia; a family members of hormones (adrenal medulla - epinephrine & norepinephrine) or neurotransmitters in brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin).amyloid - the extracellular protein substance deposited in amyloidosis. It is a waxy, amorphous, eosinophilic, hyalinechoose material that exhibits red-green birefringence under polarized light once stained with Congo red. Amyloid deposits are created of straight, non-branching fibrils via a diameter of 7.5 to 10 nm and indefinite size. Each fibril is composed of similar polypeptide chains arranged in stacked antiparallel beta-pleated sheets (this is what impar ts the characteristic birefringence under polarized light). Tright here are numerous precursor proteins which are then deposited in the tissue as amyloid; e.g.amyloid light chain (AL) - a component of immunoglobulin, occurs in mulitple myeloma;amyloid connected protein (AA) - derived from liver protein, occurs in reactive systemic amyloidosis; amyloid familial (AF) - abnormal transthyretin.amyloidosis - a group of problems of diverse etiologies defined by the accumulation of insoluble fibrillar proteins (amyloid) in various organs and tconcerns of the body - ultimately body organ feature is endangered. The associated condition states may be inflammatory, hereditary or neoplastic and also the deposition might be local or generalised or systemic.analgesia (analgesic) - the lack of pain; rerelocating pain.anaphylaxis - the immediate immunologic (allergic) reaction initiated by the combicountry ofantigen (allergen) with mast cell cytophilic antobody (chiefly IgE). anaphylactic (adj) - as in anaphylactic shock - life threatening respiratory distress, vascular collapse and shock; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to international protein or various other material.anaplasia - loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one one more and also to their framework and also blood vessels.anastomosis - a connection between 2 blood vessels or tubes.anencephaly - markedly defective advancement of the brain, cerebral hemispheres lacking or lessened to little masses, along with lack of the bones of the cranium.aneurysm - a ballooning out of the wevery one of a blood vessel or a heart chamber as a result of a weakening of the wall by disease or injury.angina - spasmodic, choking or suffocating pain. a. pectoris, paroxysmal pain in the chest often radiating to the arms; usually due to interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; often precipitated by excitement or effort.angiogenesis - the development of brand-new blood vessels.anomaly - an irregularity or deviation from normal; an abnormal framework.antibody - an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts via a details antigen that induced its synthesis. Synthesized by B lymphocytes that have actually been triggered by the binding of a antigen to a cell surchallenge receptor.antigen - any kind of substance, nearly constantly a protein, not typically present in the body which when presented to the body stimulates a certain immune response and also the manufacturing of antibodies.aphasia - partial or complete loss of the capacity to sheight, create or understand also spoken or composed language, resulting from damages to the brain by injury or illness.apnea - lack of breathing.apocrine - a form of secretion in which a portion of the cytoplasm leaves the cell in addition to the product of secretion.apoptosis - programmed cell fatality (carefully orchestrated by genes and also gene commodities that rotate the pathmeans to cell death on or off); fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound pposts that are eliminated by phagocytosis; from the Greek for "falling off".arrhythmia(s) - irconstant heart beat.ascites - buildup of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.asymptomatic - developing or reflecting no symptoms.ataxia - failure of muscle coordination; unable to coordinate muscle motion causing jerkiness and incoordination.ATP - adenosine triphosphate. A chemical incredibly essential in power metabolism in the cell.atrophy - a wasting away; a decrease in the size and also attribute of a cell, tproblem, organ or component.atypical - unusual, not characteristic.auscultation - listening for sounds within the body; it might be percreated via the unaided ear or through a stethoscope.

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B

bacteremia - the visibility of bacteria in the blood.benign - not malignant; not recurrent; favourable for recoexceptionally.bifurcation - the split of a tube or vessel right into 2 branches or channels.birefringent - birefringence; the quality of transmitting light unequally in various directions.biopsy - removal and examination, generally microscopic, of tproblem from the living body, performed to create an accurate diagnosisbradycardia - abgenerally slow-moving heart action.bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchi. It may influence the tube uniformly or occur in ircontinual pockets.bronchus - among the big passperiods conveying air to and within the lungs.bronchoscope - an instrument used for inspecting the internal of the windpipe and also bronchial tree to carry out diagnostic (taking specimens for society and also biopsy) or therapeutic (removing a foreign object) maneuvers.bronchoscopy - examination of the bronchi with a bronchoscope.BUN - blood urea nitrogen: the urea concentration of serum or plasma, mentioned in terms of nitrogen content; an essential indicator of renal attribute. (urea is the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, created in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds).

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C

cachexia - extreme loss of weight and body wasting connected with serious illness.calculus - a rock emerging in the body, e.g. kidney or bile (not the branch of mathematics!)carbuncle - deep-seated pus-producing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tworries.carcinogen - a substance that causes cancer.cardi(o) - of the heart.cardiomegaly - hypertrophy (enlargement) of the heart.caries - destruction of bone or teeth.caseous - "cheesy" or "cheese-like". As in caseous necrosis - cell death characteristic of particular inflammations (e.g. tuberculosis) wbelow the affected tconcern mirrors the crumbly consistency and dull, opaque high quality of cheese. Based on casein - the primary protein of milk, the basis of curds and also cheese.catarrh - inflammation of a mucuos membrane with raised circulation of mucous. catarrhal (adj.)caudal - situated towards or pertaining to the taill; towards the inferior or posterior finish of the body.cellulitis - inflammation of the soft or connective tconcern in which a thin, watery exudate spreads with the tconcern spaces.cephalic - pertaining to the head , or to the head end of the body.chemotaxis - activity of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimulation.chemotactic (adj.).cholangitis - inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree.cholecyst - the gallbladder.cholelithiasis - visibility of concretions ("gall stones") in the gallbladder or bile ducts.chronic - a problem through sluggish oncollection, mild yet continuous manifestations and also long-lasting, frequently progressive impacts.ciliated - cilia are tiny hair-like frameworks which aid to carry secretions alengthy the surconfront of a cell.CIN - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; one of the terminologies in usage to define precancerous or dysplastic transforms in the cervical epithelial cells..CIS - carcinoma in situ; a neoplasm where the tumor cells are still confined to the epithelium of origin without intrusion of the basement membrane (likelihood of succeeding invasive expansion is presumed to be high)..clubbing - proliferation of soft tproblem around the ends (terminal phalanges) of fingers and also toes.CMV - cytomegalovirus.coagulate - to cause to clot or become clotted; to convert a liquid or substance in solution right into a solid or a gel. coagulative (adj.) as in coagulative necrosis - a kind of necrosis in which affected cells or tworry are converted right into a dry, dull, homogeneous eosinophilic mass without nuclei as a result of the coagulation of protein.collateral (blood supply) - new vessels which construct complying with chronic interruption of blood supply.colposcope - a speculum for studying the vagina and also cervix via a magnifying lens. (colposcopy is the procedure).congestion - abnormal accumulation of blood or fluid in a component (e.g. of blood - passive congestion - obstruction of the escape of blood from a part (as in liver); pulmonary congestion - engorgement of pulmonary vessels, via transudation of liquid into alveolar and interstitial spaces).columnar (cells) - refers to a shape of cells which regularly line ducts or glands within the body.coma - a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roprovided.congenital - existing at birth; reason might be genetic or non-hereditary (infectious, chemical, physical).Congo red - specific stain for detection of amyloid fibrils. Proteins with a beta-pleated sheet framework will display red-green birefringence under polarized light.contralateral - the opposite side of the body.contusion - a bruise; an injury of a component without a break in the skin, characterized by swelling, discoloration, and also pain.cor pulmonale - right-sided heart faientice which occurs as an outcome of long-standing lung condition.creatine - an amino acid; discovered in muscle. Phosphorylated creatine is a vital storage develop of high-power phosphate = creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine. Energy source for muscle contraction.creatine kinase - an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to develop phosphocreatine. It occurs as 3 isozymes (particular to brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, respectively). Each isozyme has actually 2 components written of muscle (M) and also brain (B) subsystems - CK1 (BB) is uncovered mostly in brain, CK2 (MB) in cardiac muscle and also CK3 (MM) generally in skeletal muscle. Differential determicountry of isozymes is used in clinical diagnosis.cribiform - perforated, sieve-like pattern.cruciate - shaped favor a cross.cryptorchid - a perboy via undescended testes.cryptorchism (cryptorchidism) - failure of one or both testes to descend right into the scrotum.CT (computerized tomograph) - sophisticated radiologic approach yielding a detailed picture of interior body structures. Also CAT - computerized axial tomography.cyanosis - a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of decreased hemoglobin in blood and therefore deficient oxygecountry of blood. cyanotic (adj.).cyst - any kind of closed epithelium-lined cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, usually containing liquid or semisolid material; a bladder.cystectomy - removal of a cyst; removal or resection of the bladder.cytology - the examine of cells, their beginning, structure, attribute and pathology; the microscopic examicountry of cells as a way of detecting malignancy and microbiologic transforms. Cells can be acquired by aspiration, washing, smear or scraping.cytotoxin - (cytotoxic = adj.), a toxin or antibody having a certain toxic activity upon the cells of unique organs.

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D

DES - diethylystilbestrol; a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen; females exposed to it in uteroare topic to raised hazard of vaginal and also cervical carcinoma..degenerative - steady and also often irreversible degradation.dialysis - a procedure through which a device is supplied to rearea kidney functions in patients through diseased kidneys.diapedesis - the passage of leukocytes (white blood cells) via capillary walls to website of inflammation.diaphoresis - perspiration, specifically profusage perspiration.differentiation - the distinguishing of one point from another; the act or procedure of obtaining totally individual characters; rise in morphological or chemical heterogeneity.dilation - the act of dilating or extending.dilatation - the condition of being stretched beyond normal dimensions, commonly in a tubular sructure or an opening.diuresis - excessive amount of urine; diuretic - produces a boost in amount of urine.diverticulum (diverticula = pl) - a pouch or sac emerging normally or produced by the bulging of a membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ, such as the intestine.diverticulosis - the presence of diverticula.diverticulitis - an inflammation of a diverticulum, especially those in the wevery one of the colon which fill via fecal issue and come to be inflamed. May cause bleeding or obstruction or might burst.duct - a passage with well-defined walls, specifically a tubular framework for the passage of excretions or secretions.dysmenorrhea - painful menstruation.dysphagia - painful or challenge swallowing.dysplasia - abnormality of development; in pathology, alteration in dimension, form, and also organization of adult cells.dyspnea - labored or difficult breathing.dysrhythmia - defective heart rhythm; likewise view arrythmia.

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E

ecchymosis - a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membrane, bigger than apetechia, developing a nonelevated, rounded, or irconsistent blue or purplish patch. ecchymoses, pl.ectasia - dilatation, growth or distention. e.g. duct ectasia = dilatation of duct plugged with secretion, accompanied by periductal and also interstitial inflammatory infiltprice.ectopic - out of place; a things or organ situated in an unusual location amethod from its normal position.edema - the buildup of excess fluid in the intercellular or interstitial tworry spaces or body cavities.efferent - moving away from the centre, e.g. efferent nerve fibres carry motor impulses to muscles.effusion(s) - the escape of a liquid right into a part; the effused material (see exudate).electrolyte - a compound as soon as dissolved in water separates into charged pwrite-ups. Electrolytes play an essential function in the wormonarchs of cells preserving liquid balance and acid-base balance.embolus (emboli, pl.) - a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is lugged by the blood to a site remote from its point of origin, for this reason obstructing the circulation of blood. Many (99%) aclimb from thrombi (thromboembolus). embolism - the sudden obstruction or blocking of a vessel by an embolus.emesis - the act of vomiting.empyema - build-up of pus in a body cavity.encephalitis - inflammation of the brain.endocarditis - inflammation of the endocardium.endocardium - the innera lot of tunic of the heart (includes endothelial and also subendothelial connective tissue).endogenous - originating from within the body.endometriosis - existence of benign glands and uterine stroma (connective tproblem elements) external of the uterus.endoscope - an instrument to visually study the interior of a hollow organ such as the colon, intestine or bladder; endoscopy is the procedure.enzyme - a substance, normally a protein, that initiates and speeds up a chemical reactivity.eosin - any kind of of a course of rose-colored stains or dyes; bromine derivatives of fluorescein; supplied in histology as a stainepicanthus (epicanthal, adj.) - a vertical fold on either side of the nose; a normal characteristic in persons of particular races, however absent in others.epidemiology - the examine of the relationships of assorted factors determining the frequency and circulation of diseases in the humale community; also the field of medication handling the determination of particular reasons of localized outbreaks of infection, poisoning or other condition of recognized etiology.epigastrium - the upper and also middle area of the abdomen, located within the sternal angle. epigastric is the adjective.erythema - diffuse or patchy redness of skin, blanching on pressure, due to congestion of cutaneous capillaries.erythrocyte(s) - red blood cell(s).etiology - (etiologic, etiological = adj.) the science taking care of the causes of disease.excise - to cut out; excision - the act of cutting out.exogenous - originating from exterior of the body.exudate - a liquid through a high concentration of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has actually been deposited in tissues, or on tconcern surdeals with, typically as a result of inflammation.

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F

facies - the face; or the expression or appearance of the face.fibrillation - a small, local, involuntary muscular contractivity, due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers whose nerve supply has been damaged or reduced off. Also see ventricular fibrillation.fibrin - an insoluble protein vital to the clotting of blood, derived from fibrinogen; a component of thrombi, vegetations, and also acute inflammatory exudates.fibrinogen - a coagulation element.fibrinoid - resembling fibrin; an eosinophilic, homogeneous, proteinacious material that is typically developed on the wall surfaces of blood vessels and connective tproblem in some patients (e.g with disseminated lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and so on.). fibrinoid necrosis - results in acidophilic (eosinophilic) deposits with staining reactions that resemble fibrin in connective tissue, blood vessel wall surfaces and various other sites.fibrosis - formation of fibrous tproblem generally in repair or replacement of cellular facets.fibrotic (adj).fistula (fistulas, fistulae, pl.) - an abnormal passage or communication from one body organ to an additional or from an interior body organ to the body surface; might be caused by illness or injury or produced surgically.friable - conveniently crumbled.

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G

gangrene - necrosis due to obstruction, loss or diminution of blood supply.granuloma - a term used to any tiny nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or such a repertoire of modified macropheras resembling epithelial cells, gigantic cells and also various other macrophperiods (usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes).gyrus - (gyri = pl.), among the convolutions on the surconfront of the brain caused by infolding of the cortex.

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H

hamartoma - a benign tumour-favor nodule written of an overgrowth of mature cells and tworries generally present in the affected part, however via disorganization and also frequently via one aspect preconquering.hematemesis - the vomiting of blood.hematochezia - visibility of red blood in the stool.hematoma - a localized mass of blood, commonly clotted, trapped in an body organ, room, or tworry, resulting from a break in the wevery one of a blood vessel.hematoxylin - an acid-coloring issue from the heartwood; provided as a histological stain - stains nuclei .H & E - hematoxylin & eosin - a mixture of hematoxylin in distilled water and an aqueous eosin solution; a stain supplied frequently for examination of tconcerns.hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine.hemianopia - loss of vision or blindness in fifty percent the visual area of one or both eyes.hemiparesis - weakness on one side of the body.hemiplegia - paralysis of one side of the body.hemoglobin - the oxygen transferring pigment of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is a conjugated protein containing 4 heme teams and globin. A molecule of hemoglobin contains 4 globin polypeptide chains - designated alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In the adult, Hemoglobin A predominates (alpha2, beta2).hemolysis - the liberation of hemoglobin, consisting of separation of the hemoglobin from the red cells and also its appearanc in plasma.hemoptysis - the spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum.hemorrhage - to bleed; an escape of blood from the blood vessels. hemorrhagic (adj.)hemosiderin - a product of the decomposition of hemoglobin, found largely intercellularly in locations of old hemorrhage.hemostasis - the arrest of bleeding by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means; interruption of blood flow with any kind of vessel or to any type of anatomical area.hepatomegaly - enlargement of the liver.hernia - the protrusion of a portion of an body organ or tproblem through an abnormal opening.hilum or hilus (hila = pl.) - the component of an organ wright here blood vessels and also nerves enter and leave.HIV - humale immunodeficiency virus; the organic agent resulting in AIDS (obtained immune deficiency syndrome).HPV - humale papilloma virus; subtypes have been linked through the development of cervical cancer.hydrocephalus - a congenital or got problem noted by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, generally arising secondarily to obstruction of the cerebrospinal liquid (csf) pathmeans, and accompanied by an build-up of csf within the skull; h. ex vacuo, compensatory replacement by cerebrospinal liquid of the volume of tworry lost in atrophy of the brain.hydrosalpinx - the accumulation of serous fluid in the fallopian tube.hyperemia - an excess of blood in a component.hyperplasia - a managed increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tproblem, leading to a equivalent boost in tissue mass.hypersensitivity - a state of altered retask in which the body reacts via an exaggerated immune response to a international agent.hypertension - high arterial blood push. Various criteria for its threshost have actually been argued, varying from 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic to as high as 200 mm Hg systolic and also 110 mm Hg diastolic.hypertrophy - a rise in individual cell size, which consequently leads to an increase in tconcern mass/body organ dimension.hypoechoic - in ultrasonography, providing off few echoes or weaker echoes than normal tworry or than in bordering regions.hypoplasia - incomplete advancement or underadvance of a tconcern, typically due to a decrease in variety of cells.hypotension - low blood press. hypovolemia - lessened blood volume.hypoxia - decreased supply of oxygen to tissues (below physiologic levels) despite normal blood perfusion.hysterectomy - surgical removal of the uterus.

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I

iatrogenic - resulting from the task of physicians; commonly used for any type of adverse problem in a patient resulting from therapy by a doctor or surgeon. Derived from iatr(o) (Gr) - medication, doctor. iatric - pertaining to medication or a medical professional.idiopathic - emerging without known cause.ileum - the distal percent of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum.ileus - an intestinal obstruction.indurated - hardened, firm.infarct - a localized area of ischemic necrosis developed by blockage of the arterial supply or venous drainage of the component.infarction - the formation of an infarct; acute myocardial infarction (AMI) - circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis of tworry is arising.in situ - indicates "in its original place"; might be offered descriptively of a cancer (e.g. carcinoma in situ) or to describe experiments carried out in place (e.g in situ hybridization).inspissation - drying-out; in histologic sections inspissated secretions appear as thick, amorphous, deeply staining material within the lumales of ducts or glands.intussusception - when a segment of one component of the intestine becomes telescoped right into an automatically adjacent part.ipsilateral - same side of the body.ischemia - (ischemic = adj.), deficiency of blood in a part, typically because of sensible constriction or actual obstruction or blockage of a blood vessel.

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J

jaundice - yellowness of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and also excretions due to enhanced bilirubin in the blood and also deposition of bile pigments.

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K

karyolysis - the dissolution of the nucleus - the nucleus swells and also slowly loses its chromatin.karyorrhexis - rupture of the cell nucleus in which the chromatin disintegrates right into formmuch less granules that are extruded from the cell.karyotype (karyotyping) - the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus; the photographic representation of the chromosomes for evaluation.keratoconjunctivitis - inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.kyphosis - abnormally raised convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as perceived from the side.

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L

lacuna (lacunae = pl) - a tiny room or depression; e.g. in bone, the lacunae are cavities in the bone tproblem in which bone-creating cells are found.leptomeninges - the 2 fragile membranes of the meninges, the arachnoid and also pia mater.leukocyte(s) - white blood cell(s).leukocytosis - a transient increase in the variety of white blood cells (leukocytes); because of various reasons.leukoplakia - a white patch of dental mucous membrane which cannot be wiped off.liquefaction - conversion into a liquid form.liqefactive necrosis - a type of necrosis identified by dull, opaque, partly or totally fluid remains of tissue, observed in abscesses and frequently in infarcts of brain.lumen - opening, e.g. of a blood vessel with which blood flows, or in a gland or body organ.Lyme disease - a multisystem disease which can affect the skin, joints and also nervous device. Caprovided by a bacteria brought by particular kinds of ticks (most typically discovered in locations of northeastern U.S.).lymphadenopathy - condition of the lymph nodes. 

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M

malignant - of tumours, having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis.mastectomy - removal of the breast.melena - babsence blood in the stool; the source of blood is generally from the stomach or duodenum and is thus acted upon by digestive enzymes that break dvery own the blood and produce its black appearance.menarche - the initially menstrual duration, normally developing in the time of puberty.meninges - plural of meninx; any membrane, but especially the 3 membranous coverings of the brain and also spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid and also pia mater).meningitis - inflammation of the meninges.menorrhagia - hypermenorrhea or profuse menstruation.menorrhea - the normal discharge of the menses.menses - the monthly flow of blood from the genital tract of a womale.metaplasia - the readjust in the form of adult cells in a tconcern to a form abnormal for that tissuemetastasis - (metastases = pl.; metastatic = adj), move of illness from one organ or part of the body to an additional not straight linked through it, due either to carry of pathogenic organisms or to deliver of cells; all malignant tumours are capable of metastasizing. A expansion of pathogenic microorganisms or of abnormal cells distant from the site mainly involved by the morbid process.metrorrhagia - constant or non-cyclical uterine bleeding.morbidity - the problem of being diseased or sick; the "sick" rate, i.e. the ratio of sick to well persons in a community.mortality - the top quality of being mortal or alive; the "death" price, i.e. the variety of civilization dying in a provided populace.myocyte(s) - (a) muscle cell(s).myoepithelium - flattened to stellate cells, believed to be contractile, which lie in many type of creates of externally secreting glands between the secreting cells and the basement membrane on which they lie.myomectomy - surgical removal of a myoma (a benign tumor of muscle elements).myxoma (myxomatous = adj.) - a benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue; occurs in bone, skin and also muscle; in cardiac muscle might encroach on the cavity of an atrium.

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N

nares - the nostrils; the external openings of the nasal cavity.necrosis - the morphological alters indicative of cell fatality resulted in by steady enzymatic deterioration.neoplasia - the development of a neoplasm.neoplasm - tumour; any type of brand-new or abnormal growth, specifically one in which cell multiplication is unregulated. Neoplasms might be benign or malignant.neutropenia - diminished variety of neutrophils in the blood.neutrophil - a granular leukocyte having a nucleus with 3 to 5 lobes associated by threads of chromatin and also cytoplasm containg incredibly fine granules; any kind of cell, structure or aspect conveniently stainable through neutral dyes.nitroglycerin - as soon as compounded in taballows used in the therapy and avoidance of angina pectoris. Used sublingually (under the tongue). A vasodilator.NMR ( nuclear magnetic resonance) sdeserve to - or even more typically currently as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) - a advanced radiologic strategy yielding a in-depth picture of inner body structures.nocturia - extreme urination at night.nosocomial - pertaining to or originating in a hospital.

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O

obtund - to dull or blunt (particularly to blunt sensation or dull pain), or to alleviate alertness;obtundation - clouding of consciousness.occlusion - cshedding or shutting off, e.g. shutting off a blood vessel by a blockage of the opening.occult - not visible to the naked eye or hidden from watch.Oil-red-O - (Solvent red 27; M.W. 409) - A member of the azo dye family used to identify neutral lipids and fatty acids in smears and also tconcerns. The chromophore is the azo team (-N=N-) which connects 2 aromatic rings. This coloured non-polar substance dissolves in lipids and provides them visible under the microscope. Fresh smears or cryostat sections of tconcern are necessa ry because fixatives containing alcohols, or regimen tproblem processing through clearing, will remove lipids. A more helpful agent for coloring all types of lipid is Sudan babsence B.oligohydramnios - too bit amniotic liquid.oliguria - diminiburned urine output in relation to liquid intake.oncogene(s) - giving climb to tumours or causing tumour formation; genes that contribute to the development of tumours.organelles - minute, intracellular frameworks serving a specific feature in the life procedures of the cell.orthotopic - emerging at the normal location.osteoarthritis - degenerative condition of joint cartilage.osteoporosis - a common condition of the development of bone leading to breakable bones and fractures.

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P

palsy - paralysis; e.g. cerebral palsy = persisting motor disorders in young kids resulting from brain damage led to by birth trauma or intrauterine pathology.Pap (Papanicolaou) smear - a specimen for microscopic examination of cells for detection of variuos problems of the female genital tract (e.g. malignant and also premalignant conditions), all set by spreading the product throughout a slide.paraparesis - weakness affecting the lower extremities.paraplegia - paralysis of the lower limbs.parenchyma (parenchymal = adj.) - the vital (working) tproblem of an organ as distinguimelted from the supporting connective tproblem, vessels, nerves, and so on.paresis - slight or partial paralysis.paresthesia - any kind of abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or a "pins and also needles" feeling, frequently in the absence of outside stimuli.paroxysmal - recurring "sudden attacks" of symptoms.pathology - the branch of medicine that deals with the necessary nature of condition and also the changes in body tconcerns and organs which cause or are caused by disease; the structural and also practical manifestations of disease.pathogen - a disease-causing microorganism or agent.pathogenesis - the breakthrough of disease; specifically the cellular occasions and reactions and mechanisms developing in the advancement of condition.pathognomonic - characteristic or indicative of a disease; denoting symptoms or findings certain for a offered illness and also not found in any kind of various other condition.peptide - a protein with a small variety of amino acids.perfusion - transport of blood through blood vessels from heart to inner organs, tissues, and so on.pericarditis - inflammation of the pericardium - the sac encshedding the heart and also the roots of the excellent vessels.perikaryon (perikarya = pl) - the cell body; applied especially to neurons.periorbita - periosteum of the bones of the orlittle bit or eye socket. periorbital, adj.periosteum - a devoted connective tworry spanning all bones and also having actually bone-developing potential.peristalsis - a wave of contractions and also relaxations of the digestive tract propelling its contents in the direction of the anus.peritoneum - the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and neighboring the contained organs; the two layers produce a potential room - the peritoneal cavity.peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum as a result of chemical or bacterial irritation.petechia(e) - a minute red spot(s) due to escape of a little amount of blood. petechial, adj.PID - pelvic inflammatory disease.pleura (pleural = adj.) - the serous membrane extending the lungs and also lining the walls of the thoracic cavity; the 2 layers hence enclose a potential room - the pleural cavity.pleural effusion - raised quantities of fluid within the pleural cavity, generally because of inflammation.pleuritis - inflammation of pleura.PMN - polymorphonuclear leukocyte; neutrophil.polyarteritis - inflammation involving numerous arteries at the very same time.polymorphonuclear - having actually a nucleus so deeply lobed or so separated regarding show up multiple.polyp - a general term for any mass of tconcern that tasks outwards from a typically smooth surconfront.primipara - a womale that has born her first boy.prognosis - a forecast of the course and probable outcome of a disorder.proteinuria - an excess of serum proteins in the urine.prophylaxis - to proccasion disease; precautionary therapy.proteolysis - the breaking up of proteins.pruritis - intense itching.pseudohermaphroditism - a problem in which a perchild has actually the internal sexual organs (testes or ovaries) of one sex however, because of endocrine abnormalities, their external appearance is that of the oppowebsite sex. Contrast via true hermaphroditism wbelow both kinds of internal sexual organs are existing.psychogenic - having actually an emotional or psychologic origin.puerperal - relating to childbirth; the interval including the moment of labor and also recent post-shipment period.purpura - a tiny hemorrhage in the skin, mucous membrane or serosal surface; a team of disorders characterized by the visibility of purpuric lesions, ecchymoses, and a propensity to bruise conveniently. purpuric, adj.pus - a protein rich liquid inflammation product comprised of cells (white blood cells or leukocytes), a thin liquid, and cellular debris.pyknosis - a thickening, especially degeneration of a cell in which the nucleus shrinks in size and also the chromatin condenses to a solid, structuremuch less mass.pyogenic - producing pus.pyothorax - an build-up of pus in the thorax. See also empyema.pyrexia - a fever or febrile condition.pyrogen - a fever-creating substance. pyrogenic (adj.).

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Q

quadriplegia - being paralysed in all four limbs; unable to use arms and legs.

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R

regurgitation - flow in the oppowebsite direction than normal, e.g. throwing up of undigested food; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.relapse - a go back to a previous bad or ill condition.reperfusion - the flooding of tissue via blood after it has actually experienced ischemia or a loss of blood supply.rheumatoid arthritis - a common chronic inflammatory illness mainly resulting in pain in the joints.rhinitis - inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.

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S

sangineous - bloody; relating to blood.sclerosis - abnormal hardening of tworry.scurvy - a disease resulted in by insufficient intake of vitamin C.sedimentation rate (ESR/ZSR) - non-specific test that measures settling of red blood cells per unit time in a column of fresh blood - a turbulent meacertain of enhanced amounts of fibrinogen and also globulin which may take place in particular pathologic or physiologic says (e.g. heart assaults, cancer, pregnancy). ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation price.seizure - an attack; the sudden onset or recurrence of an illness or of certain symptoms, e.g. an epileptic assault, convulsion.sepsis - the visibility of bacteria (pathogenic organisms) or their toxins in the blood or tissues.sequela(e) - the consequence(s) following an illness.shock - a sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium; a profound hemodynamic and also metabolic disturbance identified by faiattract of the circulatory mechanism to preserve adequate perfusion of crucial organs.sign - an objective indication or proof of illness found on examicountry of a patient. Contrast with symptom.SIL - squamous intraepithelial lesion; one of the terminologies in use to define precancerous or dysplastic transforms in the cervical epithelial cells.spasm - a sudden, violent, involuntary muscle contraction; a sudden tightening of a passage or canal. spastic - identified by spasms or other unmanaged contractions of the skeletal muscles; muscles are stiff and also the activities awkward. spasticity - the problem identified by spasms.splenomegaly - enlargement of the spleen.squamous (cells) - cell kind frequently watched in areas exposed to significant irritation or trauma - e.g. skin.staging - the determicountry of unique phases or durations in the course of a disease, the life background of an organism, or any biological process; the classification of neoplasms according to the degree of the tumour (e.g. TMN staging - staging of tumours according to 3 standard components: primary tumour (T), regional nodes (N), and metastasis (M) - from 0 (undetectable) to 4).steatosis - fatty degeneration.stenosis - narrowing or contraction of a duct or canal. stenoses, pl.steroid - a class of hormone through a particular chemical framework consisting of 4 interlocking carbon rings.stricture - an abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage.stridor - a harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound.stroma - the connective tproblem structure of an body organ or other structure, as distinguimelted from the tworries percreating the unique attribute of the body organ.subcutaneous (s.c. or SQ) - beneath the skin.sulcus - (sulci = pl.), a groove, trench or furrow; in neuroanatomy, for circumstances, a depression or groove on the brain surface separating the gyri.suppuration (suppurative = adj.) - development or discharge of pus.symptom - subjective evidence of illness as perecived and also reported by a patient.syncope - fainting; short-lived loss of consciousness because of lessened oxygen distribution to the brain.synovia - the transparent, viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and also found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths.synovitis - inflammation of a synovial membrane, commonly painful, particularly on movement, and also identified by fluctuating swelling (due to effusion in a synovial sac).systole - the contractivity of the heart during which blood is pumped right into the heart; systolic, the blood press in the arteries when the heart pumps blood with the body. Also seediastolic.

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T

tachycardia - abcommonly quick heart beat.teratogen - a substance or problem that impairs normal advance of the embryo or fetus in utero causing a congenital abnormality.thrombocytopenia - an abcommonly little number or decrease of circulating platelets in the blood.thrombus - (pl. thrombi), a solid mass created from the constituents of blood within the blood vessels or the heart. Thrombi that create within the swiftly relocating arterial circulation are composed mainly of fibrin and also plateallows with just a couple of trapped red and also white cells.thrombosis - the inproper or pathological development of a solid mass (from the constiutents of blood) within a blood vessel or organ.toxin - a poiboy created by a living organism.transient - of brief duration, temporary.troponin - a protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin develops a regulatory protein complex regulating the interaction of actin and myosin and also that once combined via calcium ions permits muscular contraction; as soon as cardiac muscle cells are damaged, troponin is released into the blood stream and gives a beneficial indicator of cardiac cell death and evidence of myocardial infarction.

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U

ulcer - a neighborhood defect or excavation of the surface of an body organ or tissue developed by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tconcern.urea - the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, developed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; discovered in urine, blood, and lymph. Also see BUN - blood urea nitrogen.uremia - an excess of the nitrogen-containing finish commodities of protein and amino acid metabolism in the blood; the entire constellation of indications and symptoms of chronic renal faientice.

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V

vasculitis - inflammation of a vesselvasodilator - an agent that causes dilatation of the blood vessels.ventricular fibrillation - fast, ircontinuous twitching of heart muscle which stays clear of coordinated contractivity of heart.vertigo - a sensation of spinning or whirling motion.

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virulence - the degree of pathogenecity of a virus as indicated by the severity of disease developed and the ability to attack the tworries of the host. virulent (adj.)volvulus - a twisting of a loop of intestine leading to an obstruction, may impair blood supply leading to infarction.