Read this area of chapter 2, do the evaluation sections, and also usage this exercise to drill and understand the information in 2.1.

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What is the basic unit of matter?
The atom is.
Who coined the word "atom"? When?Democritus called the term nearly 2500 years ago.
What subatomic particles make up an atom?It's comprised of prolots, neutrons, and electrons.
What similarities perform protons and also neutrons have?Both have actually about the exact same mass, and strong bonds bind them together to create the nucleus.
What distinctions are there between prolots and neutrons?Prolots or positively charged ("pro"); neutrons have actually no charge.
Why are atoms neutral in their charge?They have actually equal numbers of electrons and also proloads, and those subatomic pwrite-ups have actually equal however opposite charges.
What charge does an electron have actually and also exactly how much does mass does it have?Its mass is 1/1840 the mass of a proton; they are negatively charged.
What is a chemical element? How many type of are there?It's a pure substance that's made up of one kind of atom. There are over 100 known facets.
How perform you understand the atomic numer of an element?It's the variety of protons in the atom.
What is an isotope?It's an atom of an facet that has a number of neutrons various from that of other atoms of the exact same facet. (In various other words, atoms of the very same aspect that differ in the number of neutrons they contain.)
How deserve to you find the mass number of an atom?It's the sum of the prolots + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
How is an isotope identified?They're determined by their mass numbers.
How is the atomic mass calculated?It's an average: total mass of an aspects isotopes separated by the variety of isotopes in the aspect.
Why perform isotopes of an facet have the very same chemical properties?It's because they have actually the very same variety of electrons.
What does it intend when an isotope is radioactive?It has a nucleus that's unsecure and also breaks down at a constant price over time.
What are some handy offers of radioactive isotopes?1) Geologists identify rock and fossil eras by studying the isotopes in them; cancer is treated through some; bacteria have the right to be eliminated by them; they can be supplied as tracers to follow movement of substances in an organism.
What's a chemical compound?It's a substance formed by the chemical combicountry of 2 or even more facets in definite prosections (check out pg. 37).
What's a chemical formula?It's the shorthand also provided to show the composition of compounds; it mirrors the kinds of facets that are in the compound and the proportion in which atroms of those aspects combine.
What's the formula for table salt?It's NaCl. (sodium + chlorine in a 1:1 ratio--1 sodium + 1 chlorine)
What are the 2 major types of chemical bonds?They're ionic and covalent bonds.
How is an ionic bond formed?It's formed once 1 or more electrons are transferred from 1 atom to another.
What charge do ions have?Some are positive; some are negative. If an atom loses electrons, it has actually a + charge; it the atom gains electrons, it has actually a - charge.
Actually, what is an ionic bond?It's the solid attractivity between oppositely charged ions.
When is a covalent bond formed?It's created once electrons are common in between atoms.
How is a dual covalent bond formed?It's developed when 4 electrons are shared by atoms.
What's a triple bond?It's as soon as 6 electrons are shared by atoms (watch web page 38).
What is a molecule?It is the structure resulting when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds; it's the smallest unit of most compounds.
What are van der Waals forces?They're the slight attranctions that develop in between oppositely charged areas of adjacent molecules. They're not as solid as ionic or covalent bonds.

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How does a gecko climb up a wall?Van der Waals pressures create in between molecules on the surchallenge of the gecko's foot and molecules on the surchallenge of the wall; the unified toughness allows the gecko to balance the pull of gravity.