Presentation on theme: "Mendelian Genetics The ethics of probability deserve to be used to predict the outcome of genetic crosses Probcapacity - The likelihood that a specific occasion."— Presentation transcript:




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1 Mendelian Genetics The ethics of probability have the right to be supplied to predict the outcome of hereditary crosses Probcapacity - The likelihood that a particular occasion will take place is dubbed probcapability. When a baby is born, the probability that it is a girl is 1:2 or 50%.

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2 Probcapacity and GeneticsProbability and Product Rule: How execute you calculate the probcapacity of even more than one occasion occurring? Product Rule = Multiply the probability of each independent event together

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3 Probcapability and also GeneticsExample: What is the opportunity that a pair (both heterozygous for tongue rolling) will certainly produce a baby girl who can roll her tongue?

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4 Probcapacity and also GeneticsBegin by determining the probcapability of each event happening independently: What is the probcapacity of developing a baby girl? ____________ 50% or 1/2

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5 Probcapability and GeneticsWhat is the chance that a pair (both heterozygous for tongue rolling) will produce a boy who have the right to roll its tongue? Set up a Punnett Square! ________________ R r 75% or 3/4 R r RR Rr Rr rr

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6 Probability and GeneticsThe original question: What is the chance that a pair (both heterozygous for tongue rolling) will create a baby girl that deserve to roll her tongue? ________________ What is the possibility that this couple will certainly develop a baby girl who cannot roll her tongue? ________________ ½ x ¾ = 3/8 ½ x ¼ = 1/8

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7 Gregor Mendel Mendel started his hereditary study by crossing true-reproduction pea plants, the P(arent) generation. The result of this cross is the F1 generation, which are hybrids. He next crossed the F1 generation to produce the F2 generation.

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8 Mendel’s Genetic CrossesP generation F1 generation F2 generation

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9 Mendel’s Research on 1 TraitWhat is the phenotype proportion of F2 generation? What is the genokind proportion of F2 generation? 3 violet flowers:1 white flower 1 BB: 2Bb: 1bb

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10 Mendel’s Law of SegregationMendel known that each pea plant had 2 alleles for a trait. He hypothesized that one allele came from each of the 2 parent plants. Mendel’s legislation of segregation states: Allele pairs sepaprice in the time of gamete (sex cell) formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.

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11 Half the variety of chromosomes as the parent cellProduction of Gametes Half the variety of chromosomes as the parent cell

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12 The Two-Factor Cross Mendel next tested whether the segregation of alleles for one trait (instance seed shape: round or wrinkled) affects the segregation of a second trait (example seed color: yellow or green)

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13 The Two-Factor Cross One plant was true breeding for both yellow AND round seeds = P generation This plant’s genokind was YYRR The just alleles that might be produced by this plant were… Pass out whiteboards!

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14 The Two-Factor Cross The second plant was true reproduction for both wrinkled AND green seeds = P generation This plant’s genokind was yyrr The only alleles that might be produced by this plant were… yr

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15 The Two Factor Cross The only possible outcome of this cross is …YRYR RrYy = F1 generation What is the phenotype of the offspring? Round and yellow seeds. YyRr YyRr yr YyRr YyRr

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16 The Two-Factor Cross Mendel next crossed the offspring of the F1 generation. He crossed YyRr via YyRr. Each plant is referred to as a dihybrid. Which alleles are developed from YyRr? Work this out on your whiteboard! YR yR Yr yr

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17 The Two Factor Cross YR yR Yr yr YR yR Yr yr r yrDraw a 16 box Punnett Square to present the cross between YyRr and also YyRr Begin by mirroring the feasible alleles. Then fill in the boxes! YR yR Yr yr ryr

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18 Two Factor Cross Results

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19 The Two Factor Cross What is the phenokind ratio for a 2 variable cross between dihybrids? Write on whiteboard! ___________dominant for both traits – yellow and round seeds ___________dominant for one trait and recessive for the second – yellow and also wrinkled seeds 9 3

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20 The Two Factor Cross 3 ___________recessive for one trait and dominant for the second – green and also round ___________recessive for both traits – green and wrinkled 1 Phenotype ratio – 9:3:3:1

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21 Mendel’s Actual Results

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22 Mendel’s 4th ConclusionPrinciple of Independent Assortment - genes for different traits have the right to segregate INDEPENDENTLY throughout the development of gametes. For example: A perboy deserve to have actually blonde hair and also blue eyes or brown hair and also blue eyes.

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Hair color and eye shade are inherited separately of each other.

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