Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical method that can be offered to explain just how cultures and/or social groups come to watch behaviors as deviant or typical. Labeling theory, differential association, social discompany concept, and control theory fall within the realm of symbolic interactionism.

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Labeling Theory

Although every one of us violate standards from time to time, few human being would think about themselves deviant. Those who carry out, but, have actually regularly been labeled “deviant” by culture and have actually slowly pertained to believe it themselves. Labeling theory examines the ascribing of a deviant habits to another perboy by members of culture. Thus, what is thought about deviant is determined not so much by the habits themselves or the civilization who commit them, but by the reactions of others to these actions. As a result, what is thought about deviant changes over time and deserve to vary considerably throughout cultures.

Sociologist Edwin Lemert expanded on the concepts of labeling concept and established 2 forms of deviance that affect identification development. Primary deviance is a violation of norms that does not lead to any long-term impacts on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others. Speeding is a deviant act, however receiving a speeding ticket primarily does not make others see you as a bad perboy, nor does it change your own self-concept. Individuals who engage in major deviance still maintain a feeling of belonging in culture and also are likely to proceed to condevelop to standards later on.

Sometimes, in even more too much situations, main deviance can morph into secondary deviance. Secondary deviance occurs as soon as a person’s self-concept and habits start to adjust after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of culture. The perkid might start to take on and satisfy the role of a “deviant” as an act of rebellion versus the culture that has actually labeled that individual as such. For example, take into consideration a high college student who often cuts course and gets right into fights. The student is reprimanded commonly by teachers and also institution staff, and also quickly enough, he develops a reputation as a “troublemaker.” As a result, the student starts acting out even more and also breaking even more rules; he has actually embraced the “troublemaker” label and adopted this deviant identity. Secondary deviance have the right to be so solid that it bestows a understand status on an individual. A understand status is a label that explains the chief characteristic of an individual. Some civilization check out themselves generally as physicians, artists, or grandfathers. Others see themselves as beggars, convicts, or addicts.


The Right to Vote

Before she shed her task as an governmental assistant, Leola Strickland postdated and also mailed a handful of checks for amounts ranging from $90 to $500. By the time she had the ability to discover a brand-new project, the checks had bounced, and also she was convicted of fraud under Mississippi regulation. Strickland pleaded guilty to a felony charge and also repaid her debts; in rerevolve, she was spared from serving prison time.

Strickland showed up in court in 2001. More than ten years later, she is still feeling the sting of her sentencing. Why? Since Mississippi is just one of twelve states in the USA that bans convicted felons from voting (ProCon 2011).

To Strickland also, who said she had actually constantly voted, the news came as a good shock. She isn’t alone. Some 5.3 million civilization in the United States are currently barred from voting because of felony convictions (ProCon 2009). These individuals encompass inmates, parolees, probationers, and also even civilization who have actually never before been jailed, such as Leola Strickland.

Under the Fourteenth Amendment, states are enabled to deny voting privileges to individuals who have participated in “rebellion or other crime” (Krajick 2004). Although tright here are no federally mandated regulations on the matter, most says practice at least one create of felony disenfranchisement. At present, it’s approximated that approximately 2.4 percent of the possible voting populace is disfranchised, that is, lacking the right to vote (ProCon 2011).

Is it fair to proccasion citizens from participating in such a critical process? Proponents of disfranchisement legislations argue that felons have actually a debt to pay to society. Being stripped of their best to vote is part of the punishment for criminal deeds. Such supporters allude out that voting isn’t the only circumstances in which ex-felons are denied rights; state regulations also ban released criminals from holding public office, obtaining skilled licenses, and occasionally also inheriting residential property (Lott and Jones 2008).

Opponents of felony disfranchisement in the United States argue that voting is a simple humale right and also must be available to all citizens regardmuch less of past deeds. Many kind of point out that felony disfranchisement has its roots in the 1800s, when it was provided mainly to block black citizens from voting. Even nowadays, these laws disproportionately targain bad minority members, denying them a chance to participate in a system that, as a social conflict thinker would point out, is currently built to their disbenefit (Holding 2006). Those who point out labeling concept concern that denying deviants the right to vote will only additionally encourage deviant actions. If ex-criminals are disenfranchised from voting, are they being disenfranchised from society?


Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association

In the early 1900s, sociologist Edwin Sutherland also sneed to understand how deviant habits emerged among civilization. Because criminology was a young area, he attracted on other elements of sociology consisting of social interactions and group finding out (Laub 2006). His conclusions establimelted differential association theory, which argued that people learn deviant habits from those cshed to them who provide models of and methods for deviance. According to Sutherland also, deviance is much less an individual choice and also more an outcome of differential socialization processes. A tween whose friends are sexually energetic is more most likely to watch sex-related task as acceptable.

Sutherland’s concept may define why crime is multigenerational. A longitudinal examine beginning in the 1960s found that the finest predictor of antisocial and criminal habits in kids was whether their parents had been convicted of a crime (Todd and also Jury 1996). Children that were younger than ten years old as soon as their paleas were convicted were even more most likely than various other kids to connect in spousal abuse and also criminal habits by their at an early stage thirties. Even when taking socioeconomic determinants such as dangerous areas, poor institution units, and overcrowded real estate into consideration, researchers found that paleas were the main affect on the behavior of their offspring (Todd and also Jury 1996).

Travis Hirschi: Control Theory

Continuing through an examicountry of large social determinants, manage theory says that social manage is straight affected by the strength of social bonds and also that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society. Individuals who think they are a component of culture are less most likely to commit crimes versus it.

Travis Hirschi (1969) figured out 4 kinds of social bonds that affix world to society:

Attachment procedures our connections to others. When we are carefully attached to civilization, we concern about their opinions of us. People condevelop to society’s norms in order to acquire approval (and also prevent disapproval) from household, friends, and romantic partners.Commitment describes the investments we make in the neighborhood. A well-respected neighborhood businesswomale who volunteers at her synagogue and also is a member of the community block company has actually even more to lose from committing a crime than a womale who doesn’t have actually a career or ties to the area.Similarly, levels of involvement, or participation in socially legitimate activities, lessen a person’s likelihood of deviance. Children who are members of little bit league baseround teams have actually fewer family situations.The last bond, belief, is an agreement on prevalent values in culture. If a perkid views social worths as beliefs, he or she will certainly concreate to them. An environmentalist is more likely to pick up trash in a park, bereason a clean atmosphere is a social worth to him (Hirschi 1969).
FunctionalismAssociated TheoristDeviance arises from:
Strain TheoryRobert MertonA lack of ways to reach socially embraced goals by accepted methods
Social Discompany TheoryUniversity of Chicback researchersWeak social ties and a lack of social control; culture has lost the ability to enpressure standards with some groups
Cultural Deviance TheoryClifford Shaw and also Henry McKayConformity to the social standards of lower-course society
Conflict TheoryAssociated TheoristDeviance arises from:
Unequal SystemKarl MarxInequalities in wealth and also power that aclimb from the economic system
Power EliteC. Wideal MillsAbility of those in power to define deviance in methods that maintain the status quo
Symbolic InteractionismAssociated TheoristDeviance arises from:
Labeling TheoryEdwin LemertThe reactions of others, specifically those in power who are able to determine labels
Differential Association TheoryEdwin SutherlinLearning and also modeling deviant actions watched in various other world cshed to the individual
Control TheoryTravis HirschiFeelings of dislink from society

Summary of Theoretical Explacountries of Deviance

The three major sociological paradigms market various explacountries for the inspiration behind deviance and also crime. Functionalists point out that deviance is a social requirement since it reinpressures standards by reminding world of the after-effects of violating them. Violating standards deserve to open society’s eyes to injustice in the system. Conflict theorists argue that crime stems from a mechanism of inequality that keeps those with power at the peak and those without power at the bottom. Symbolic interactionists focus attention on the socially built nature of the labels concerned deviance. Crime and also deviance are learned from the setting and also imposed or discouraged by those about us.

Supplemental Material

Resee the concept of differential association, labeling theory, and also strain theory again in the video from Khan Academy.

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Pick a well known politician, service leader, or celebrity that has been arrested newly. What crime did he or she allegedly commit? Who was the victim? Explain his or her actions from the suggest of watch of one of the significant sociological paradigms. What components best define how this person could be puniburned if convicted of the crime?

2. A convicted sex-related offender is released on parole and also arrested two weeks later for repetitive sexual crimes. How would labeling concept describe this?

The offender has actually been labeled deviant by culture and has actually accepted a new grasp status.The offender has actually went back to his old community and so reestablimelted his former actions.The offender has lost the social bonds he made in priboy and also feels disconnected from culture.The offender is poor and also responding to the various social worths that exist in his community.