The determicountry of the limiting and excess reagents in a chemical reactivity often tends to be an obstacle for many type of chemisattempt students. Teachers have actually used the making of cookies and also hamburgers, or combinations of nuts and also bolts, among various other prevalent items to help students understand these principles. While students understand also that if you have actually 10 hamburger patties and just 6 pickles one deserve to only make 3 hamburgers, if each requires 2 pickles. They have actually difficulty transporting this principle to chemical reactions. Their difficulties, in component, can be attributed to the truth that these ideas are expressed in symbolic and mathematical expressions, and also need an knowledge from the molecular viewallude.

You are watching: Stoichiometry lab vinegar and baking soda answers

This demonstration supplies the simple reactivity in between vinegar and baking soda to carry out observational evidence of limiting and also excess reagents. Students have the right to check out that the limiting and excess reagents depfinish upon the quantities of each reactant.

The reaction:


Five flasks, each containing 70 mL of vinegar, have balloons attached which contain 2.0 g, 4.0 g, 6.0 g, 8.0 g and also 10.0 g of baking soda consecutively (Fig. 1).

The balloons are increased to permit the baking soda to autumn in and also react with the vinegar. The students note the dimension of each balloon (watch Fig. 2) and the bottoms of each flask to check out whether baking soda stays or not. The enhancement of bromothymol blue permits one (Fig. 3) to view if the solution is acidic or basic, and confirm predictions by adding more baking soda or vinegar to the flasks. The students are guided via a collection of calculations to confirm their monitorings for the flask through 2.0 g of baking soda included — view Table 1 below. Then the students confirm their observations for the other four flasks by completing similar calculations. Lastly, they determine the stoichiometric amount of each reactant vital for neither to remain when the reaction reaches completion.

This demonstration has actually a number of advantages. Except for the bromothymol blue*, only prevalent, inexpensive and also easily easily accessible household items are supplied. Other acid-base indicators discovered in the majority of chemistry labs might be substituted. The experiment is basic to percreate, giving a selection of observations to support the principles of limiting and also excess reagents. If enough devices is accessible, each student can percreate this safe, hand-operated activity. Tright here are two disadvantages. First, you will should uncover balloons that have actually tantamount stretch to yield proper quantities depending upon the amount of gas generated. 2nd, the reactants in this demonstration have actually a one to one ratio. Are students able to apply their knowledge obtained to various other reactant ratios? As a demonstrator, I have not investigated this.

Limiting and excess reagents


Limiting reagent and also excess reagent(s)Stoichiometric amounts of reagentsStoichiometric calculations (assuming 100% reaction), such as determicountry of limiting reagent, amount of excess reagent (amount reacted, amount remaining), amounts of products


Five 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasksFive 12” helium quality latex rubber balloons (very same color)100 mL graduated cylinder~400 mL white vinegar (~5% acetic acid; this demo, the concentration was calculated to be 0.83 mol/L)Balance, 150 mL beaker and also plastic funnel for weighing and also transferring solids~50 g pure baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate)Permanent markerCrystallization dish or huge beakerTwo 100 mL beakers~50 mL of waterBromothymol blue indicator solution and also dropperTable 1: Completed table for 2.0 g NaHCO3 with 70 mL of vinegar
Amounts before reaction0.058 mol0.024 mol000
Change in amounts- 0.024 mol- 0.024 mol+ 0.024 mol+ 0.024 mol+ 0.024 mol
Amounts after reaction0.034 mol00.024 mol0.024 mol0.024 mol


Fig. 1. Left to right: NaHCO3 (2.0 g, 4.0 g, 6.0 g, 8.0 g, 10.0 g) in the balloons via all flasks via 70 mL of vinegar.


Although the chemicals provided are not harmful one have to version great practices. Wear protective gloves and also eyewear. Avoid ingestion, inhalation or call via bromothymol blue.

Advance preparation

Fill each 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask via 70 mL of vinegar. Label each flask respectively, 2 g, 4 g, 6 g, 8 g and also 10 g.Meacertain around 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 g of baking soda into separate balloons. I execute this by attaching a balloon to the plastic funnel and also standing in the 150 mL beaker. Place the whole setup on the balance, tare and weigh baking soda.Carefully attach each balloon to the designated flask being careful not to spill any kind of baking soda into the vinegar. Be certain to squeeze out any type of air in the balloon before completely attaching. Arselection the flasks in consecutive order.


Fig. 2. Left to right: NaHCO3 (2.0 g, 4.0 g, 6.0 g, 8.0 g, 10.0 g) included to all flasks through 70 mL of vinegar. Students can view the initially balloon is the smallest. The second balloon is bigger. All of the three balloons on best have a larger and also similar volume.


Demonstprice the reactivity in between baking soda and vinegar by placing a little amount of baking soda in the crystallization dish and also including a couple of milliliters of vinegar.Sjust how and also talk about the chemical reaction.Exordinary the setup of the five flasks, stating that all has 70 mL of vinegar, and also that there are raising amounts of baking soda in the balloons.Holding onto the balloon where it is attached to the flask, raise the balloon containing 2.0 g of baking soda so that every one of the baking soda will fall right into the vinegar. Allow it to totally react.Repeat the over process in order for each flask.Compare the quantities of each balloon and research the bottoms of each flask for excess baking soda.Sjust how the shade of bromothymol blue in vinegar and in a water solution of baking soda — yellow and blue, respectively.Rerelocate the balloons from each flask and include bromothymol blue (about 15 drops) to each. Add baking soda to the initially flask that originally had 2.0 of baking soda. That a reaction occurs reflects that the baking soda was the limiting reactant.Add vinegar to the last flask that initially had 10.0 g of baking soda. That a reactivity occurs mirrors that the vinegar was the limiting reactant.Sjust how the mathematic calculations to identify the limiting and excess reactants, and also the amount of each product created — assuming 100% reactivity — for the 2.0 g of baking soda reacting through the 70 mL of vinegar. Use the results to define the physical observations.Have students repeat the mathematical calculations for4.0 g, 6.0 g, 8.0 g and also 10.0 g, and also usage results to define the physical monitorings.Have students determine the stoichiometric quantities of reactants so that neither reactant continues to be at the finish of the reaction.


Fig. 3. Left to right: bromothymol blue included to NaHCO3 (2.0 g, 4.0 g, 6.0 g, 8.0 g, 10.0 g) included to all flasks with 70 mL of vinegar. The options in the first two flasks (left) are yellow; the third is light green; and the last two are bluish-green. The beakers on each end display bromothymol blue in vinegar (far left, yellow), and in water plus baking soda (far right, blue).


As presented in Fig. 2, the second balloon on right (4.0 g NaHCO3) is about double the volume of the balloon on the initially flask (2.0 g NaHCO3). The balloon on the 3rd flask (6.0 g NaHCO3) is larger yet not quite triple the size of first balloon. The balloons on the last two flasks (8.0 g, 10.0 g NaHCO3) are around the exact same dimension as the one on the 3rd flask (6.0 g NaHCO3). No left over baking soda in the initially two flasks was observed whereas tright here was baking soda oboffered in the last three flasks in consecutively raising quantities. When tbelow was no evidence of baking soda; this means it was provided up — limiting reagent. When tright here was evidence of leftover baking soda, students might clearly see it was the reagent in excess.

As displayed in Fig. 3, a yellow shade is produced as soon as bromothymol blue is included to the initially two flasks. This suggests the vinegar is in excess as the solution is acidic. The 3rd flask is a lighter green (neutral, pH 6.0 -7.6). The last 2 have a darker bluish-green (pH better than 7.6); this would certainly indicate the baking soda is in excess.

Clean up

All mixtures can be disposed of in the sink. Check local regulations prior to doing so.

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<* Bromothymol blue can be purchased at pet stores. The indicator is provided to examine pH of an aquarium.>

Dr. Kenneth Lyle is a lecturing-fellow in the Department of Chemistry at Battle Each Other College NC. The Powell Family Trust, the Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, and also Biogen Idec – Research Triangle Park fund the Battle Each Other Chemisattempt Outreach Program.