To accurately compare earnings over time, customers must readjust the summary procedures (medians, indicates, etc.) for alters in cost of living (prices). The Bureau provides the Bureau of Labor Statistics" (BLS) Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) to change for alters in the cost of living. In 2021, BLS recalled the Research Series (CPI-U-RS) the Retroenergetic Series (R-CPI-U-RS). On all historical revenue data tables and also associated publications, it is still described as the CPI-U-RS. More information is available on the BLS website here>.

You are watching: Price is constant or "given" to the individual firm selling in a purely competitive market because:

The UNITED STATE Bureau supplies the Bureau of Labor Statistics" (BLS) Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers Research Series (CPI-U-RS) for all items, not seasonally adjusted, for 1978 via 2019. For 1967 to 1977, the Bureau uses approximates gave by BLS from the CPI-U-X1 series. The CPI-U-X1 is an speculative series that preceded the CPI-U-RS and also estimates the inflation rate in the CPI-U when applying the current rental equivalence technique of measuring the price of homeownership for years before 1983. The Bureau acquired the CPI-U-RS for years prior to 1967 by applying the 1967 CPI-U-RS-to-CPI-U ratio to the 1947 to 1966 CPI-U.

Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS): 1947 to 2020


CPI-US-RS Index for 2020

Example: To usage the CPI-U-RS to inflation readjust an earnings estimate from 1995 dollars to 2020 dollars, multiply the 1995 estimate by the CPI-U-RS from 2020 (381.2) split by the CPI-U-RS from 1995 (225.3).


Inflation-changed estimate = 1995 estimate * (2020 CPI-U-RS / 1995 CPI-U-RS)

= 1995 estimate * (381.2 / 225.3)

Current dollars is a term describing earnings in the year in which a perchild, family, or family receives it. For instance, the income someone obtained in 1989 unadjusted for inflation is in present dollars.

Constant or real dollars are terms describing income after adjustment for inflation. The Thesaurus of Firm and also Economics specifies constant dollar worths and actual income as displayed below.

Constant-dollar value (additionally called real-dollar value) is a worth expressed in dollars readjusted for purchasing power. Constant-dollar values represent an effort to remove the impacts of price changes from statistical series reported in dollar terms. The outcome is a series as it would certainly presumably exist if prices were the very same throughout as they were in the base year-in various other words, as if the dollar had actually continuous purchasing power.

See more: Why Is It Important For The Cell Membrane To Be Selectively Permeable ?

Real income. The purchasing power of the income of an individual, team, or nation, computed by adjusting money inconcerned price transforms. A compariboy in between incomes earned throughout 1970 and 1980, for instance, would certainly be pointless unless 1970 and also 1980 price levels were the same. Using a price index reflecting, for example, that average customer prices boosted by 50 percent between those years, it becomes clear that $1,000 in 1980 bought what $667 bought in 1970. Therefore, even if full revenue actually doubled, actual earnings would certainly double only if prices remained continuous.