You are watching: Is water an ionic or covalent bond
First of all, a single water molecule consists of an oxygen atom attached to two hydrogen atoms. Each of the hydrogen atom is bound to the oxygen atom with a covalent bond. Why the bond is covalent have the right to be described by looking at the electronegativities of each atom.
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First of all, a single water molecule consists of an oxygen atom attached to 2 hydrogen atoms. Each of the hydrogen atom is bound to the oxygen atom with a covalent bond. Why the bond is covalent have the right to be defined by looking at the electronegativities of each atom.
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A covalent bond is a kind of bond wbelow the atoms connected share electrons in order to attain an octet (8 electrons). Oxygen has actually 6 electrons, and also by sharing electrons with 2 hydrogen atoms (each sharing one electron), it attains an octet. The hydrogens only require 2 electrons (exception to octet). This is as opposed to an ionic bond such as in NaCl wbelow one of the atoms entirely transfers the electron to the other. Covalency is best when the two atoms have actually practically equal electronegativities. Electronegativity is the measure of the tendency of an atom in a bond to attract the shared electrons towards itself. Hence, the atom via the better electronegativity will entice the electrons more towards itself (this results to polar bonds). If the electronegativity in between the 2 atoms is exceptionally large, the bond created is more most likely to be ionic. As a dominance of thumb, if the distinction in electronegativity is much less than 0.4, the bond is taken into consideration non-polar; in between 0.4 and 1.7, the bond is polar. Both of these are covalent bonds. Above 1.7, the bond would certainly be considered ionic.
In the situation of water, the electronegativity of oxygen is 3.5, while that of hydrogen is 2.1. The difference is 1.4, and also hence the bond is a polar covalent bond via electrons tending to be closer to oxygen because it is even more electronegative. In summary, water has a covalent bond because of the nature of oxygen and hydrogen -- they share electrons to achieve stability, and also their electronegativities are cshed sufficient for their bond to be taken into consideration covalent.