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    O   Oblique - Crossing the battlefield in a diagonal line.   Ordnance Rifle (3-Inch) According to the UNITED STATE Military, the Three-Inch Ordnance Rifle:

* Fires 10-lb. projectiles (conical bolt, instance, shell, canister). * Has a bore diameter of 3 inches. * Has a tube weight of 820 pounds, and also is made of wrought iron. * Has a variety of 1,830 yards at 5 levels elevation. * Has a muzzle velocity of 1,215 feet per second. * Was offered for Infanattempt assistance in open up locations, and as a counterbattery.   Outflank - To acquire around the flank (side) of an opposing force.   Overtaker - See Jerusalem Overtaker, above. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   P   Parapet - A protective wevery one of logs, sandbags, or gabions, 4 or five feet high having a shenable ditch behind it and also dirt packed versus the front of it.   Pafunction - An initiative to compensate for the mass variety of detainees taken by both sides during the war. The detainees would certainly be changed after they took an oath not to fight for a certain amount of time. Late in the Civil War it was discontinued by UNITED STATE Grant in order to deny the South a resource of soldiers.   Partisan Rangers - In April, 1862, the Confederate Congress authorized the formation of Partisan Rangers. These were to be units of the Confederate Military, which would certainly wear the Confedeprice army unicreate and also be paid in a manner comparable to Privateers. The Partisan Rangers" assignment was to infiltrate and rhelp behind Union lines. In 1864, the Confedeprice Congress repealed the authorization, but allowed the extension of any systems mentioned by the Secretary of War. Secretary of War James Seddon kept only two systems, one commanded by John S. Mosby and various other commanded by J. H. Neill.   Parrott Rifle - A form of rifled cannon through a reinforced powder chamber allowing a heavier powder charge and greater range. According to the U.S. Army, the Parrot Field Rifle, 10-pounder: * Fires 10-lb. projectiles (conical bolt, case, shell, canister). * Has a bore diameter of 3 inches. * Has a tube weight of 890 pounds, and is made of iron. * Has a selection of 2,000 yards at 5 levels elevation. * Has a muzzle velocity of 1,300 feet per second. * Was used for infanattempt support in open locations, and also as a counterbattery.   Picket - A perboy inserted on guard duty at the front lines.   Pioneers - A specialized unit in the Military perdeveloping engineering attributes such as constructing roadways, repairing bridges, and also damaging foe fortifications and also railroads.   Plank Roadway - Highmeans, about 15 feet wide, surconfronted with wood planks (greatly pine). They made wagon take a trip less complicated.   Point - To aim. In an evident initiative to make the times seem more straightforward than they were, some interpreters emphadimension that the Civil War soldier just "pointed" his weapon, he did not "aim" it. However before, the dictionary defines "to aim" and also "to point" as interchangeable. So as soon as the Civil War soldier "pointed" his weapon, he was, indeed, "aiming" it.   Point d"appui - A secured allude that anchored a fight line.   Pontoon Bridge - A bridge whose deck is sustained by flat bottomed boats.   Privateer - A privately-owned vessel whose mission wregarding prey upon the warships and also merchant vessels of the foe. The Privateer crew was compensated from the "spoils" taken from any kind of caught ship. A personal vessel"s condition as a privateer was authorized by "Letters of Marque", and the ideal to issue these letters was granted by the U.S. Constitution and additionally was well-known internationally. Thus, when the Confederacy issued Letters of Marque in 1861, the U.S. government can not protest the activity also strenuously. However, Lincoln announced that upon the capture of any such vessel, the crew would certainly be hanged as piprices. Davis countered with a like fate for any type of Northern crew. The Confederate privateers did even more damage than those of the Union. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   Q   Quaker Guns - Dummy cannons built from a length of log painted black. Designed to deceive an foe from an excellent distance.   Quarterunderstand - A commissioned officer of the Quartermaster Corps whose duty is to carry out apparel and subsistence for a body of troops. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   R   Rassist - A fast moving strike versus the foe designed to destroy his operations and confiscate any kind of useful items. It was not designed to take and hold a position, rather, after a raid, the unit retired earlier to its lines, or, in the case of the Partisan Rangers, its hideouts.   Ramcomponent - A broad embankment of earth neighboring a fortification. The rampart was thought about to be the whole peak of the fortification.   Reconnaissance - A preliminary survey of an area; esp: an exploratory army survey of enemy area.   Redan - A tiny area fortification through two wall surfaces collection at a salient angle encountering the enemy. The rear was commonly open up. It was used to cover the front of a battle line, roads, bridges, and so on.   Redoubt - An earthoccupational, enclosed on all sides, exterior of a fort, trench, or other functions, which sustained cannon and also infanattempt. It was designed to restrict the enemy"s ability to straight strike the fort, trench, or various other works being sustained.   Refusage the Line - to maneuver a regiment or bigger to cause the front to readjust direction by 90 levels.   Regiment - A army unit composed of 10 service providers (each company having 50-100 men) and also led by a colonel.   Rifle Pit - A tiny, shenable pit, that sheltered a soldier against attack. "The Civil War soldier"s foxhole."   Rifled Cannon - An artillery item which provides spiral grooves on the inside of the barrel to impart a spin on the projectile and improve accuracy.   Rifled Musket - A term adopted in 1855 to designate those shoulder arms that preserved the exterior dimensions of the old muskets however had rifled barrels.   Rout - A disorderly retreat. A damaging defeat. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   S   Salient - A distortion in a battle line in which the line exoften tends out and also about an area, prior to continuing throughout the fight front. Salients invite strike bereason they are exposed on two or three sides. When planned, the salient was a defensive line protruding out in order to defend ground not addressable from the main line. The "Mule Shoe," at Spotsylvania is an instance of a salient.   Sap - A zig-zag trench or tunnel dug to a suggest within an adversary position; to weaken the structure of a fortification.   Sap roller - A cylindrical object of basketwork, rolled ahead of guys building a sap (trench) toward the adversary, to provide cover from the enemy"s small-arms fire.   Sarcophagus - Limestone provided for coffins; a huge stone coffin   Covering - A hollow cannon projectile, containing foffered explosives, which wregarding be exploded over enemy troops.   Shoddy - An inferior wool fabric issued in the develop of uniforms during the war. It dropped apart after a few days of use. It currently suggests inferior or imitation product or something that is poorly made.   Shrapnel - Covering pieces from an exploding shell.   Siege - The armed forces blockade of a tvery own, or fortified area, to force its surrender by cutting interactions and also supply lines.   Siege Guns - Large, 12, 18, and 24 pounder cannon, together with other artillery, supplied to attack a fortification. If they were offered to protect a fortification, they were dubbed "garrison" firearms.   Skedaddler - A derogatory name, provided by both sides in the Civil War, offered to a soldier who fled the battlearea.   Skirmish - Light contact that involved fairly few guys. A minor encounter.   Skirmish line - Lines of troops deployed in breakthrough and/or on the flanks of an army on the move. They drew the enemy"s initially fire, offering a warning to the major army of an imminent clash.   Smoothbore - A cannon or gun having actually no rifling; having actually a smooth tube.   Solid Shot - An artillery projectile made of solid iron generally supplied to batter fortifications or versus naval vessels.   Spencer Rifle - A seven-shot, 52-caliber breechloading repeating rifle weighing ten pounds and firing 14 rounds per minute. Repeating rifles were not adopted by the Federal army until 1863.   Spike a Cannon - To disable a cannon by driving a nail or spike through the vent hole, then utilizing the rammer finish of the cannon"s spong-rammer tool (See Below) to bend the nail or spike inside the cannon barrel.   Sponge-Rammer - A wood staff, with a sponge on one end and also a rammer on the other, offered in preparing a cannon for firing. The sponge end was dampened and pumelted dvery own the barrel in order to put out any type of fire or embers inside the cannon barrel, left tbelow after a previous firing. This would prevent a premature detonation as soon as the following powder charge was inserted in the cannon. The rammer finish was then used to press the following cannon sphere, with its babsence powder bag, dvery own the cannon barrel placing the powder bag directly under the vent hole in the barrel. After the powder bag had been penetrated via a vent pick, or wire, pushed dvery own the vent hole, a flame sent out down the vent hole would explode the powder and also fire the shell.   Stacked Arms - A free-standing pyramid of muskets or carbines. Generally this was done at the end of the day, yet, it could be provided to show surrender or refusal to fight.   Stars and Bars - The initially nationwide flag of the Confederacy. It had 2 red bars separated by a white bar, and also salso white stars in a circle with a blue background. It"s similarity to the Union flag led to a deadly mix-up at the fight of First Manassas,   Stockade - A line of stout short articles or timbers set firmly in the earth in call with each other to form a barrier or defense fortification.   Straggler - A soldier who drops earlier or wanders ameans from his agency generally during a march; occasionally due to fatigue or illiness; sometimes to protect against battle.   Strategy - The scientific research or art of armed forces command as applied to the overall planning and conducting of massive operations.   Sutler - A private businessman that adhered to the army and sold items to the soldiers. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   T   Tactics - The approach or scientific research of securing the objectives designated by strategy; the art of deploying and also directing troops, ships in an reliable manner versus the enemy.   Theater - A huge location wbelow army projects take location.   Those People - Robert E. Lee"s usual desigcountry for the Northern army or Northern citizens.   Torpecarry out - A land mine or a marine mine. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   U   Ultimo - of or arising in the month preceding the current.   Union - A designation of the North in the time of the Civil War.   Unlimber - To detach a cannon from the limber.   Unreconstructed - A term offered to previous Confedeprice veterans who refoffered to accept defeat. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   V   Vent - A tiny hole, or touch hole, in the breech of a cannon or gun with which a spark is transferred to ignite the powder.   Vedette (likewise, Vidette) - A Picket on horseago. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   W   War Horse - A veteran. Made well known by Lee"s designation of General James Longstreet as his "old battle horse".   Wheel To - To pivot a line of soldiers.   Wing - Either flank of a fight line; periodically used to designate a command. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   X RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   Y   Yankee - A Northerner, a New Englander. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE   Z   Zouave - Originally, natives of North Africa that, wearing bappropriate and vivid apparel, distinguimelted themselves in the Criexpect War.

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Zouave suppliers were created in the time of the Civil War on both sides to indicate exceptionally excellent fighters. RETURN TO TOP OF PAGE