Will Kenton is an expert on the economic situation and also investing legislations and also regulations. He formerly organized senior editorial roles at jiyuushikan.org and Kapitall Wire and holds a MA in Economics from The New School for Social Research and also Doctor of Philosophy in English literary works from NYU." data-inline-tooltip="true">Will Kenton
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Toby Wtransforms is a financial writer, investor, and also lifelong learner. He has a passion for analyzing financial and financial data and also sharing it through others.

You are watching: A. what is the meaning of a four-firm concentration ratio of 60 percent?


What Is Concentration Ratio?

The concentration proportion, in economics, is a ratio that indicates the dimension of firms in relation to their sector as a whole. Low concentration proportion in an industry would certainly show higher competition among the firms in that market, compared to one through a ratio nearing 100%, which would be evident in an market identified by a true monopoly.


The concentration ratio compares the size of firms in relation to their market as a whole.Low concentration ratio shows better competition in an industry, compared to one with a proportion nearing 100%, which would be a syndicate.An oligopoly is evident as soon as the top 5 firms in the market account for more than 60% of complete sector sales, according to the concentration proportion.

Understanding the Concentration Ratio

The concentration proportion shows whether an sector is made up of a couple of large firms or many small firms. The four-firm concentration proportion, which consists of the market share of the 4 largest firms in an market, expressed as a percent, is a typically provided concentration proportion. Similar to the four-firm concentration ratio, the eight-firm concentration ratio is calculated for the market share of the eight largest firms in an industry. The three-firm and also five-firm are two even more concentration ratios that can be used.


Concentration Ratio Formula and Interpretation

The concentration ratio is calculated as the amount of the industry share portion hosted by the biggest specified variety of firms in an market. The concentration proportion ranges from 0% to 100%, and an industry"s concentration proportion indicates the level of competition in the industry. A concentration ratio that arrays from 0% to 50% may suggest that the industry is perfectly competitive and is thought about a low concentration.


A dominion of thumb is that an oligopoly exists when the height 5 firms in the industry account for more than 60% of complete market sales. If the concentration ratio of one agency is equal to 100%, this suggests that the industry is a monopoly.


Example Calculation

Assume that ABC Inc., XYZ Corp., GHI Inc., and also JKL Corp. are the four biggest companies in the bioinnovation sector, and also an economist intends to calculate the level of competition. For the the majority of recent fiscal year, ABC Inc., XYZ Corp., GHI Inc., and JKL Corp. have actually sector shares of 10%, 15%, 26%, and 33%, respectively. Consequently, the biotechnology industry"s four-firm concentration proportion is 84%. Thus, the proportion indicates that the biotech industry is an oligopoly. The exact same can be calculated for more or less than 4 of the peak providers in the industry. The concentration proportion just suggests the competitiveness of the market and also whether an market follows an oligopolistic market structure.

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Herfindahl-Herschmale Index

The Herfindahl-Herschguy Index (HHI) is an alternate indicator of firm size, calculated by squaring the portion share (proclaimed overall number) of each firm in an industry, then summing these squared sector shares to derive an HHI. The HHI has actually a fair amount of correlation to the concentration ratio and deserve to be a far better measure of sector concentration.